Tag Archives: Waka

Blood on the water

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The Heemskerck and Zeehaen at anchor in Golden Bay

The Heemskerck and Zeehaen at anchor in Golden Bay

On the morning of December 19th, 1642, Abel Tasman was sat at anchor in Golden Bay, with his two ships, the Heemskerck and the Zeehaen.

At first light a native boat had come out to them, stayed a while and then gone away. They had showed some of their trading goods to the natives, but the south-landers had shown no interest.

From the land, the Chief had gone out with one of the boats to have a closer look at the enemy. So far, they had only been up close in the dark. Now he had looked in their eyes, he and he had measured their strength. He had demanded that they explain themselves, but had received no satisfaction.

The Maori were extremely wary of visitors.

When they saw strangers, they didn’t know if they were friend or foe, and they assumed the latter. They were foe until they accounted for themselves satisfactorily and were given permission to stay.

The residents had all rights, the visitors had none.

There were strict protocols about how to approach when entering someone else’s territory. If they did not observe these protocols, or did not observe them properly, then they were a danger, and the resident Maori would not wait for them to strike first.

The Maori observed the precautionary principal… A dead stranger can’t hurt you.

Anyone who was not up to mischief would have explained who they were, and what their purpose was. These strangers hadn’t done that.

Tasman had not observed the proper protocols.

The strangers had come uninvited, they had not said who they were, they had not asked if they could stay, and they stayed un-bidden.

Now, it was his duty, Chief of the Ngati Tumatakokiri, to protect his people, and teach the strangers some manners.

Early morning, Dec 19th 1642, Golden Bay, New Zealand

Tasman’s Journal
“Early in the morning a boat manned with 13 natives approached to about a stone’s cast from our ships; they called out several times but we did not understand them, …
                         … They did not come nearer, however, but at last paddled back to shore.”

“In the meanwhile, at our summons sent the previous evening, the officers of the Zeehaan came on board of us, upon which we convened a council and resolved to go as near the shore as we could, since there was good anchoring-ground here, and these people apparently sought our friendship.”

Diary: Taupo Pa
It was still early when we assembled on the shore. The Tohunga spoke a karakia over us, our weapons, and our boats. Then we took our positions and paddled from the beach.

We went in nine good boats. Of all out boats, these were the best for fighting from; steady and fast. I was in the biggest of them, with 16 paddlers and the steersman. I was as strong a paddler as most of the men, and was proud to be given a place in the crew.

“Shortly after we had drawn up this resolution we saw 7 more boats put off from the shore, one of which (high and pointed in front, manned with 17 natives) paddled round behind the Zeehaan while another, with 13 able-bodied men in her, approached to within half a stone’s throw of our ship; the men in these two boats now and then called out to each other; we held up and showed them as before white linens, etc., but they remained where they were.”

As we got closer to the ships we separated and stood singly. Each of the big ships had one small boat, but when we arrived both were tied to the ship with the higher pointed stern. The Chief said this should be the ship of their chief, and took his position there. We moved our waka to the far side of the ship with the fat stern, and the others placed themselves around evenly.

At some time, the strangers would take a small boat back to the other ship… and when they did, we would be ready.

The strangers on both ships were shouting and waving things at us, but the Chief called out for us to ignore that, and hold our positions.

All the officers of both ships were on the Heemskerck. A Ships Council had been convened to agree and record what to do next. They had decided that they would move closer ashore; it was good anchoring ground in a safe harbour, and they could re-stock their supplies here.

With all the officers of the Zeehaen at the Ship’s Council, the Zeehaen was left without any senior command, so they sent instructions across to the crew on the Zeehaen.

At this stage, Tasman’s party still believed that there was no threat from the Maori. Tasman wrote that “these people apparently sought our friendship”, and the Sailors Journal recorded the same sentiment; “nine ships, full of people, came from the land, we thought came to us to make peace”.

They were gravely mistaken.

“The skipper of the Zeehaan now sent out to them his quartermaster with her Cock-boat with six paddlers in it, with orders for the second mates that, if these people should offer to come alongside the Zeehaan, they should not allow too many of them on board of her, but use great caution and be well on their guard.”

In the Zeehaen’s Cock-boat were the Quartermaster from the Zeehaen, the Gunner from the Heemskerck and five others. There is no indication in the journal texts, or in Gilsemans’ drawing, that they were armed any way, and their is no suggestion anywhere that any of the occupants of this boat were soldiers.

After some time we heard the Chief calling.

One of the small boats was loading,
… he could see no weapons
… just paddles
… there were only seven of them.

Be ready; wait for the signal.

We could barely believe these strangers could be so stupid. While they stayed on their ships we couldn’t get to them, and they were safe. But when they were on the open water they were assailable. And according to the chief, there were only a few of them, and armed only with their clumsy paddles.

We sat quiet in the water, poised for the command.

The small boat moved off coming towards our ship. It moved very slowly. We waited in silence, waiting for the signal.

Then we heard calling from the chiefs boat, and paddles in the air. Now!

Nine boats pivoted in union. Heads and shoulders went forward, and paddles dug hard into the water. We sped, with accelerating strokes, bellowing towards the little boat halfway between the ships. What a ruckus was coming from our boats.

The Ngati Tumatakokiri attacking the Zeehaen's Cock-boat

The Ngati Tumatakokiri attacking the Zeehaen’s Cock-boat

“Just as the Cock-boat of the Zeehaan had put off from board again those in the prow before us, between the two ships, began to paddle so furiously towards it that, when they were about halfway slightly nearer to our ship, they struck the Zeehaan’s Cock-boat so violently alongside with the stem of their prow that it got a violent lurch, upon which the foremost man in this prow of villains with a long, blunt pike thrust the quartermaster Cornelis Joppen in the neck several times with so much force that the poor man fell overboard.”

The Ngati Tumatakokiri attacking the Zeehaen's Cock-boat

The Ngati Tumatakokiri attacking the Zeehaen’s Cock-boat

The Chiefs boats got there first. They were at full speed and hit the strangers boat square across its middle; the strangers seemed shocked and confused by what was happening. But if any of them thought to defend themselves with their paddles, it was too late. One of our men was up immediately, his Pouwhenua flashing in the light. He caught one of the them by surprise and had three or four good strikes before the man even knew what was happening, then made a hit that pitched the stranger right out of the boat. The strangers oars were too heavy to move quickly, and they couldn’t block the blows from our Pouwhenua.

Our men jumped straight in, patus moving like blurs. Two more of the strangers dived over the side, but our men dealt to the others. They dragged one of the strangers into the Chiefs boat, and then we all turned and left as quickly as we came, before the visitors could summon their thunder and lightning on us.

“Upon this the other natives, with short thick clubs which we at first mistook for heavy blunt parangs, and with their paddles, fell upon the men in the Cock-boat and overcame them by main force, in which fray three of our men were killed and a fourth got mortally wounded through the heavy blows.”

[From the Barber-surgeon’s account]
“Half-way between the two ships the boat was attacked from all sides by the Southlanders: who approaching made a fearful noise, and treated the seven sailors in such a way: that they beat four to death with long staffs. The remaining three swam away. After committing this murder, they rowed with incredible skillfulness to the shore: so that before could (we could) use the guns, they were out of range.”

[From the sailors account]
“In the morning, before breakfast, nine ships, full of people, came from the land, which we thought came to us to make peace, and treat us with friendship; but, on the contrary, they have, to our deep regret killed three of our people. May our Lord God preserve us from greater misfortune. The first was called Jan Tyssen, from Oue-ven; the second Tobias Pietersz, from Delft; the third Jan Isbrantsz.

The Cock-boat being brough back by the Heemskerck's pinnace

The Cock-boat being brough back by the Heemskerck’s pinnace

The quartermaster and two sailors swam to our ship, whence we had sent our pinnace to pick them up, which they got into alive. After this outrageous and detestable crime the murderers sent the Cock-boat adrift, having taken one of the dead bodies into their prow and thrown another into the sea.”

Once we had put some distance between ourselves and the ships, we turned to look. Then the thunder and lightning began. It came from both ships. First there was the flash, a cloud of smoke, the boom of the thunder, and then fish would jump to the surface where the lightning bolt landed.

We watched on as their other small boat went out to pick up the survivors.

Tasman’s Journal
“Ourselves and those on board the Zeehaan seeing this, diligently fired our muskets and guns and, although we did not hit any of them, the two prows made haste to the shore, where they were out of the reach of shot.

With our fore upper-deck and bow guns we now fired several shots in the direction of their prows, but none of them took effect.”

When the Cock-boat was nearly halfway to the Zeehaen, the Ngati Tumatakokiri had attacked; suddenly and ferociously. On command they paddled in fast and hard, making a huge noise, confusing and frightening their enemy, and then they struck without hesitation. After only a few moments three of Tasman’s people were in the water, swimming for the Heemskerck, and the other four were either dead or taken.

Tasman’s ships opened fire with musket and cannon, but didn’t hit anything.

Holman, the Skipper of the Heemskerck, took the Pinnace to rescue the swimmers.

After a while the thunder attack stopped, and quiet fell over the water. As we sat in our positions near the shore waiting for the next action, we watched the small boat we had attacked return to its ship. Soon after, to our delight and surprise, we saw sails appear on both ships.

The Chief now called in the remaining men good boats, and we all set off to chase them from the bay.

Tasman leaving Golden Bay being pursued by the Ngati Tumatakokiri

Tasman leaving Golden Bay being pursued by the Ngati Tumatakokiri

“We now weighed anchor and set sail, since we could not hope to enter into any friendly relations with these people, or to be able to get water or refreshments here.

Having weighed anchor and being under sail, we saw 22 prows near the shore, of which eleven, swarming with people, were making for our ships. We kept quiet until some of the foremost were within reach of our guns, and then fired 1 or 2 shots from the gun-room with our pieces, without however doing them any harm; those on board the Zeehaan also fired, and in the largest prow hit a man who held a small white flag in his hand, and who fell down. We also heard the canister-shot strike the prows inside and outside, but could not make out what other damage it had done. As soon as they had got this volley they paddled back to shore with great speed, two of them hoisting a sort of tingang sails.

They remained lying near the shore without visiting us any further.”

The wind was light and their ships were only moving away slowly, so we closed on them quickly and easily. As we got close the thunder attack started again. This time we found that the lightning bolts were accompanied by flying stones. Some of these hit the boats and one of our men was hit and fell.

The Chief, seeing that the ships were still leaving, had us turn back; there was no shelter from the flying rocks, and going on would only mean taking casualties for no gain.

We turned back towards the shore. Those that carried sails used them to preserve their strength should another fight come.

When we were beyond the limit of the flying rocks we stopped, and waited, holding our place between the strangers and the land.

We remained there at the ready. The visitors stopped for the while in the middle of the Bay, but then began moving again, and to our delight finally left in the direction of Rangitoto. Our brothers there should by now have heard of the approaching strangers. Now we can tell them that they are scared of a fight.

Tonight there will be feasting and celebrations, and around the fire the story will be told.

For generations to come people will talk about this day. The day that the Ngati Tumatakokiri chased the Spirit Ships from Mohua.

Written this day, 2nd September, 2014.

Gilsemans' drawing of the events of December 19th

Gilsemans’ drawing of the events of December 19th

First light

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On the Morning of December 19th 1642, Abel Tasman and the Ngati Tumatakokiri had their first close look at each other.

The events of that day are recorded in Tasman’s journal, the Sailors Journal and the Surgeon-barbers account.

We also have this remarkable drawing by Isaac Gilsemans.

Gilsemans' drawing of the events of December 19th

Gilsemans’ drawing of the events of December 19th

It is captioned “A view of the Moordenaers Bay, as you are at anchor there in 15 fathom”, and is a collage of six independent illustrations that each depicts a different part of the day.

The legend at the upper right describes the individual parts of the drawing as below:

A. Our ships.
B. The prows which came alongside of us.
C. The cock-boat of the Zeehaen, which came paddling towards our ship, and was overpowered by the natives, who afterwards left it again owing to our firing; when we saw that they had left the cock-boat, our skipper fetched it back with our pinnace.
D. A view of a native prow with the appearance of the people.
E. Our ships putting off to sea.
F. Our pinnace bringing back the cock-boat.

This drawing is from the journal held at the National Archives, the Hague. A high resolution and zoomable scanned version of the original document can be found here:

Abel Tasman was sitting at anchor in Golden Bay. They had entered the Bay in the late morning and moved towards the shore before becoming becalmed, and lowering their anchors.

Gilsemans' drawing of the events of December 19th

Gilsemans’ drawing of the events of December 19th showing the position of the ships at anchor in Golden Bay

The illustration shows the ships, with land behind. The view is looking to the south-west. The headland on the left hand side is the promontory forming the Eastern end of Golden Bay, culminating at Separation Point. It is now the Abel Tasman National Park.

The Heemskerck is on the left, closer to the headland and the Zeehaen on the right, further towards the centre of Golden Bay.

With the last of the light the night before, Tasman had had visitors from the land; two boats full of warriors, but they had not managed to communicate in any useful way.

At first light, the south-landers were back. This time the south-landers came much closer, and this time in full daylight. It was the first time both parties had a good look at each other. The accounts of the Sailor and the Surgeon-barber are briefer that Tasman’s account, and this first visit of the day is only recorded in Tasman’s journal.

“Early in the morning a boat manned with 13 natives approached to about a stone’s cast from our ships; they called out several times but we did not understand them, their speech not bearing any resemblance to the vocabulary given us by the Honourable Governor-General and Councillors of India, which is hardly to be wondered at, seeing that it contains the language of the Salomonis islands, etc.”

One of the things supplied to Tasman for his voyage was a lexicon of words from the Salomon Islands. They tried some of these words, but found them of no use, “which is hardly to be wondered at”; they were after all from a country 3,500 km away.

In his journal entry for 19th December, 1642 Tasman made the first recorded description of the Maori:

“As far as we could observe these people were of ordinary height; they had rough voices and strong bones, the colour of their skin being brown and yellow; they wore tufts of black hair right upon the top of their heads, tied fast in the manner of the Japanese at the back of their heads, but somewhat longer and thicker, and surmounted by a large, thick white feather…”

“…For clothing, as it seemed to us, some of them wore mats, others cotton stuffs; almost all of them were naked from the shoulders to the waist.”

This description shows us that the waka had come very close indeed; close enough to see the top knots on the heads of the natives.

Gilsemans' drawing of the events of December 19th

Detail of the ‘South-landers’ and their boats

The waka depicted was not a drawing of the boat that visited first thing in the morning. That boat had 13 occupants; the one drawn has 11. It is not an illustration of a single boat, but representative of the people and boats they saw that day.

The illustration shows everyone bare chested, except the man standing, and that is what we would expect. The man standing would be the chief, and only the chief might own something as prestigious as a cloak.

Tasman recorded that their hair was tied up in a knot on top of their heads, and Gilsemans drew exactly this. Gilsemans however did not draw feathers in the hair, and most surprisingly there is no allusion in either the accounts, or drawing to any of the south-landers having tattoos.

The illustration doesn’t offer any detail of what the men were wearing, but the journal described the clothes as ‘mats’ or ‘cotton stuffs’.

The clothes would all have been woven flax or other fibre, and of varying fineness, but the Maori had no cotton. The Maori did have a type of cloth, called ‘tapa’, but it was rare and very highly prized indeed. Only a few examples of Tapa cloaks remain.

The detailed drawing shows the boat’s construction as well as the people, and some important details are recorded. Of immediate note is that the boat is double hulled; this was new to the Dutch. There is a horizontal lath drawn running the length of the hulls, and it appears lashed in place. This is a construction detail that would be unfamiliar to the Dutch. The lower part is the bottom of the hull, and is made from a single trunk; above the lath are separate long planks. These are tied together to deepen the hull, and the join is covered by the lath. This technique is still used in contemporary waka’s.

The sterns of the hulls are shown raised, and there is an indication of some sort of carving on them. An odd thing about the drawing is the position of the steersman; he is shown at the bow. The steersman would normally stay of the back of the boat, except on an ocean waka, when he might move to the front during tacking.

Unfortunately, Gilsemans recorded no detail of how the hulls were joined together, but Tasman provided this description.

“Their boats consisted of two long narrow prows side by side, over which a number of planks or other seats were placed in such a way that those above can look through the water underneath the vessel: their paddles are upwards of a fathom in length, narrow and pointed at the end; with these vessels they could make considerable speed.”
Gilsemans' drawing of the events of December 19th

Facing west from the lookout at Taupo Pa. Tasman’s ships were anchored in the centre of the view

From their position on the deck of the Heemskerck, the waka must have passed nearly almost directly beneath them, as Tasman noted that the paddlers could “look through the water underneath”.

They had showed the south-landers some of the trading goods they had on board, but it seems there was no interest in them. “We repeatedly made signs for them to come on board of us, showing them white linen and some knives that formed part of our cargo.“

Onboard the Heemskerck and the Zeehaen they had a bewildering array of goods to trade; these are some of them:

4 pieces of coloured cloth
5 pieces of silk patholen
4 pieces of Guinea linen
500 Chinese small mirrors
50 catties of Chinese coral
50 ordinary knives
19 pounds of Elephants teeth
2 packets of Tinsel
200 pounds of ironmongery
3/4 reals weight of gold
50 pounds of Dutch steel
1 picol of sugar
25 pounds of tin
50 pounds of pewter
25 pieces of assorted iron pots
20 pounds of cloves
200 small Chinese wooden combs
50 small hatchets
4 pounds of tortoise shell
50 pounds of lead
50 Chinese needles
4 broad Surate chintzes
10 pounds of mace
3/4 reals weight of silver
20 pounds of nutmegs
50 pounds of various brass wares
50 pounds of ebony
100 assorted pieces of porcelain
1 large brass basin
3 pearls

Both the night before, and on this morning, Tasman recorded that the waka’s approached, and then the men on board had called out. But they hadn’t understood what was said.

James Cook however was able to understand what was said;he had a translator, Tupaia.

In his Journal under the heading “War Practises of New Zealanders”, Cook recorded the manner in which they were usually approached by the Maori if their arrival was un-heralded.

“Whenever we were Visited by any number of them that had never heard or seen anything of us before they generally came off in the largest Canoe they had, some of which will carry 60, 80, or 100 people. They always brought their best Cloaths along with them, which they put on as soon as they came near the Ship. In each Canoe were generally an old Man, in some 2 or 3; these used always to direct the others, were better Cloathed, and generally carried a Halbard or Battle Axe in their hands, or some such like thing that distinguished them from the others.”

As soon as they came within about a Stone’s throw of the Ship they would there lay, and call out, “Haromoi harenta a patoo ago!” that is, “Come here, come ashore with us, and we will kill you with our patoo patoos!” and at the same time would shake them at us.

At times they would dance the War dance, and other times they would trade with and talk to us, and Answer such Questions as were put to them with all the Calmness imaginable, and then again begin the War Dance, shaking their Paddles, Patoo patoos, etc., and make strange contortions at the same time.”

Tasman reported the same behaviour that Cook described; that the waka would approach to about a stone’s throw, and then the natives would shout out to them.

Tasman thought they were being friendly.

Cook however understood the warning he was being given… Do not approach us, or come ashore, or we will kill you.

On the morning of December 13th Tasman wrote that the natives visited and then paddled away back to the beach. “They did not come nearer, however, but at last paddled back to shore“

But they weren’t gone for long.

Dawn

Kurahaupo banner

The Maori were hopelessly out-gunned; literally.

While to the eyes of the Dutchmen the south-landers had only the most primitive of weapons, this did not make them harmless.

The Maori were fearless, ruthless, and magnificent strategists; as the British would repeatedly discover to their cost two hundred years later.

What the Ngati Tumatakokiri saw on the morning of December 19th, 1642

The ‘Duyfken’, a replica of the VOC vessel that first found Australia in 1606

The Duyfken is a ‘Yacht’ of the same prescription as the Heemskerck. It was a standard formula used by the VOC, and designed for use as a light warship. The Heemskerck had the same sail, deck and general layout as the Duyfken, but was 30% larger.

Apart from being slightly smaller, the Dufken is otherwise very similar to the Heemskerck. These images of the Duyfken replica allow us to understand what the Ngati Tumatakokiri found themselves looking at on the morning of December 19th, 1642.

Diary: Taupo Pa.

At first light the Chief had called the men together again.

Last night they had been out to the ships, but only in darkness. We know now that they are enemies, and we need to know more of them.

The chief said that now it was light he would make another visit, and this time they would see the enemy plainly.

He took just one boat, with twelve of our finest fighters, and went to have a proper look.

They weren’t gone too long.

They went right up to the ships, but this time nothing happened… there wasn’t any lightning, and there were no new surprises that we could see.

When they returned he told us of the enemy’s strength.

Replica of the VOC vessel 'Duyfken'

Approaching the stern of the Duyfken from water level.

Replica of the VOC vessel 'Duyfken'

The bow of the Duyfken

Replica of the VOC vessel 'Duyfken'

The stern of the Duyfken. Note the stern lantern

Replica of the VOC vessel 'Duyfken'

Looking onto the decks of the Duyfken

They had gone very close up to the ships, less than a stone’s throw away, so they could study them properly. They had exchanged words again, but it seemed that neither understood the other any better than they had done last night. The strangers hadn’t tried to scare them away this time.

Each ship has perhaps 50 or 60 men on it, they saw no women, and the men are of odd appearance. They wear clothes that cover them completely, except for their heads and hands. Their clothes were made from a soft material, again like tapa, and are of all the colours imaginable.

They have strangely pale skin, like the colour of someone who is unwell, and they are mostly a bit smaller than us, but definitely not any bigger.

Some of the men on the ships, but only a few, have shiny hats. These shine like the sun reflecting off a wave; such taonga probably marks them as Chiefs or lieutenants.

These men don’t look frightening when you see them properly in daylight; if anything, they appear rather weakly.

The whole size of the ships is about 50 steps long, and about 10 steps wide.

On each boat stand three huge posts, two taller, and one shorter. These are so big that they must each have been made from a single tree. The posts are held up with a lot of ropes coming down to the sides of the ships. The sails are tied to poles that are fixed to these posts, and the sails are bunched up very tightly on them. The sails do indeed look like they are made of tapa; they are not woven flax.

The ships’ hulls are made of many small pieces of wood, but the method if fixing them together is mysterious; perhaps they are tied on the inside somehow.

The front is slightly raised, but the stern is very high, and stands off the water as tall as five men. The sides are lowest along the middle part. At the lowest places the sides of the ships are still higher than a man can reach. It would be difficult to climb onto the ships, but this is possible where the ropes holding the posts are tied to the sides of the ship.

On the prow of the ships is a painted carving of their God, which we didn’t recognise.

All around on the inside, the men stand on raised platforms. These are at the correct height for fending off attackers. Some of the men held long pointed poles, taller than a man, which would be very good for reaching anyone trying to climb the sides; other men had waved shorter ones at them.

Each of the ships seems to have only one small boat, secured by a rope back to the ship. The small boats can hold perhaps 10 or 12 people sat side by side, with another in the steering position. They paddle with their backs to where they were going, which means that only the steersman can see what is happening ahead of them. These little boats can carry a lot, but they are slow and unsteady.

When the Chief had finished describing the enemy, talk turned to strategy and tactics, and our respective strengths and weaknesses.

There was also some talk of their magic.

We had seen their lightning last night, but not since, and while it was alarming, it didn’t seem dangerous. It was quickly dismissed; only small children were afraid of lightning.

It would be very hard to attack the main ships, and success was unlikely; the defenders had the higher and steadier positions. To attack you had to both climb and fight. You would be one armed, unsteady, and below them, exposed to their long poles.

The ships are good defensive positions; it would be like trying to attack a Pa, and there were enough of the strangers that they couldn’t be overwhelmed in a mass attack, as we could only climb on the ships in a few places at once.

We wouldn’t succeed in an attack the main ships, but their small boats are vulnerable. You can’t fight well in a single hull, it’s too unstable, but we can from our boats. Their little boats are slow to turn and slow to run; they are also exposed to being overturned. And their paddles are poor weapons; they are too long, heavy and unwieldy. Once we get in close, they cannot use them against us.

It was soon settled.

The chief announced that we will see if we can draw them out from the big ships into their little boats; if we can, then we will beat them easily on the water.

Dead is best, but hostages might be good too… though no-one knew quite what we would do with a hostage, since we can’t communicate with their relatives to make any bargain.

We will see if they still want to stay after they have seen some of their own blood.

Into darkness

Kurahaupo banner

Diary: Taupo Pa.

We stared into the darkness, but couldn’t make anything out. There was some light from the moon, but not enough to see any detail. We knew where they were though, we could see the stars on the ships, but that was all.

All we knew was that our men had gone right up to the Spirit Ships, but beyond that, all detail was lost to the dark.

Looking towards Taupo Point from near Parapara

Looking west from the middle of Golden Bay 30 minutes after sunset

The night was calm and quiet; just a few birds and the faint slop of waves on the rocks below. Occasionally we thought we might have heard the muffled sound of a chant, but we couldn’t really tell. But we could sometimes hear a blast from the Pukaea.

Suddenly there was a flash of lightening from one of the ships, and then a sharp clap of thunder; then… nothing.

Some said they heard the the screams of the men, and a final woeful blast from the Pukaea, but I couldn’t be sure.

Then there was nothing, just the sounds of the night; the birds and the washing of the waves. It was fully dark. The stars were clear and bright… and the brightest two stars were right there, where the ships stood.

We didn’t know what had happened, and we didn’t know what to think.

Had they all been killed by the lightning?

I went with some of the others down to the beach where the boats were assembled, but nobody there knew any more than we did. Soon after we heard shouting; there were boats coming in! and to our great relief we heard the voices of our men returning.

Looking east from near Parapara 30 minutes after sunset

Looking east from the middle of Golden Bay 30 minutes after sunset

Fire on the beach in Golden Bay 2 hours after sunset

Fire on the beach in Golden Bay 2 hours after sunset

We gathered around the Chief, and in the firelight he told us what had happened.

They had rowed out to meet the strangers, but the strangers had turned away and run off before they met.

The chief wasn’t going to take that sort of rudeness, so they made chase, and were closing fast, but the strangers got back to their ships before they could be caught up.

He said they paddled their boats very strangely; with their backs to where they were going, which seemed very stupid, but that was what they’d seen. And their paddles went out sideways, instead of down into the water… even a child knows that’s silly. He also said their boats were too wide and too short and weren’t very fast; but he marvelled at the size of the trees that must have been used to make them.

On the back of each ship, high up, they have a star, captured in a snare. They also had some smaller stars which were somehow carried around the ships. Sometimes they saw the faces of the men lit up by these small stars, and they looked ghost-like, but that you couldn’t be sure about that as we all appear like that sitting under the moon at night.

We all coo-ed at such wonders.

The Chief had called out to the ships in the proper manner. He had said who he was, and who, and where he was from. He had named our river, and our mountain, that we were Ngati Tumatakokiri from the Kurahaupo, and that we had rightful mana whenua here.

The men on the Spirit Ships had called back, but the words could not be understood… but they were definitely men; this was certain. Even though it was dark there was enough light to know that these were men on those boats; not ghosts or monsters.

Contemporary Pukaea

Contemporary Pukaea

The Chief instructed a call on the Pukaea. If they did not understand our words, they would understand our Call: ‘We are here’… ‘We are already here’.

As visitors, at this they should be respectful, come humbly, and seek our permission to stay.

But they did not.

Instead, they mocked us with a call of their own. It was a different sound, a higher pitch, and with many variations, like a lower but very loud bird-song. Then, to insult us further, another joined from the other ship.

Such rudeness! Visitors showing such disrespect was never before known.

Our men were shouting their outrage, and the Pukaea was sounding hard when a bolt of lightning and thunder suddenly burst from one of the ships. It was so loud that it scared a shoal right out of the water; all around they heard the fish splashing.

Our men had roared in defiance. But then, as it was full dark, and seeing they would get no satisfaction this evening, the Chief ordered them back.

When he finished speaking we still sat there, mesmerised.

The Tohunga then spoke about the magic; the ships, the sails, the captured stars, and the lightning and thunder. There were many stories, old stories, of similar magic, though none here had seen anything remotely similar… and none of it really helped.

What we now know is that these are men, not Gods or ghouls, and that they have not come with good purpose.

They have wonderful magic and sorcery, but they are still men; men with slow boats.

This is our rightful place. They have no business here except by our invitation, and we do not extend it.

More men had arrived than last time I was on the beach. Everyone is here. There are now more boats than I had even seen in one place before. They are still working on some of the boats. Those that have been paired in the past and can be fastened together quickly, are being made ready for fighting.

In the morning, we will tell the strangers that they are not welcome here, and must leave. If they do not leave, then we will help them change their minds.

The men were being organised into crews, and a few of the women stepped forward too.

We began to prepare ourselves. If it comes to it, we will fight tomorrow.

I will be in one of the boats.

Danger in the Bay

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Tasman's anchorage and the nearest Maori occupation areas

Tasman’s anchorage and the nearest Maori occupation areas

Diary: Taupo Pa.

We were all awake by first light.

We went to the lookout to see for ourselves what was happening.

With the light, the stars had transformed back into ships again, and they were still there, in the same place.

It seemed a long time before they started moving, but when they did, they didn’t turn away as we had hoped, they kept coming towards us, to the very end of Onetahua and then beyond.

For a while there was great excitement. The Spirit Ships continued to sail east, well past the point where you turn to come into the Bay, and we thought they were making for Rangitoto.

But that turned out to be wrong. Instead of continuing to the east, they suddenly turned, and came into the Bay.

Now, everything became more urgent… they are coming!

We carried more water into the Pa and filled everything we had; others were stockpiling firewood, and some were strengthening the palisade.

All the time we heard news from the lookout. The ships were in the Bay, but moving very slowly.

At the middle of the day two small boats came from the big ones; one from each. These ships were so big that they had their own boats! Some said the Spirit Boats had spawned young.

Throughout the day, more men, and more boats were arriving. They came from further round the bay, coming closer to where the danger was.

There were a lot of people to feed.

There was an ongoing hui on the shore as the men gave their opinions, heard the chiefs, and discussed what to do. Counsel was sought from the Kaumatua and Tohungas who gave their wisdom on the happenings of before, and on the spirits and omens.

In the late afternoon the wind stopped. The big ships stopped moving, and as the sun set, their sails disappeared. But the small boats still came on.

The ships were close enough now to see them better. They were so big! As the men had said, they were very wide, and they were very high. It was impossible for them to stay upright without some sort of charm.

They were so wide it looked like they had a wall built around them; the height of three or four men. And the sails… if they were truly made of tapa, then it seemed like all the tapa in the world was on those ships. There was some movement on the ships, but they were still too far away for even the sharpest eyed of us to make out exactly what it was. Some thought they might be floating islands.

As it grew later the small boats were still getting closer, and now we thought that we could see men in them. Men, not monsters. But what manner of men, that could summon such magic, we had no idea.

Then it was decided. We would go to meet them on the water. It was better to meet them there than let their magic come ashore, especially as it was coming on dark. We did not want their magic loose in the darkness. We did not want them among us when we couldn’t see them.

So two boats went out to meet them, one of ours for each of theirs.

Two wakas at sunset. The location and photographer are unknow

Two wakas at sunset. The location and photographer are unknown

Two boats was fair. It was an appropriate meeting party. It made no threat, but equally it conceded nothing.

We could have sent far more, but that would be threatening, and we don’t know yet what other powers they possess. It was also thought unwise to show our full force until we know more of theirs.

The two boats would go out to the visitors to discover their intent and hear their Pepeha; two boats filled with our strongest and bravest.

Two other fast boats stood in the water, crewed and at the ready in case they were needed.

As our men moved towards them, the Spirit Ships’ boats turned, and starting making their way back. We thought ours might come back too, on account of the closing darkness, but they didn’t.

We watched as our men followed them on, closing, and then in the failing light… they went right up to the Spirit Ships.

How brave they were, and how proud we were of them.

As they disappeared into darkness, we prayed for their safety, and the Tohunga made his enchantments.

Kawatiri

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“we saw no human beings nor any smoke rising; nor can the people here have any boats, since we did not see any signs of them”

Range of the Ngati Tumatakokiri

Range of the Ngati Tumatakokiri

Whilst Tasman may have seen no signs of people, they were there. The North and West coasts of the South Island had been occupied for a long time, and in many locations.

The Waitaha people had been there since at least the thirteenth century and were displaced by the Ngati Wairangi and others, who in turn were displaced in the mid sixteenth century by the Ngati Tumatakokiri; descendants of the Kurahaupo voyagers. In time the Ngati Tumatakokiri too fell to other invaders.

Archaeological evidence shows that the whole North facing coast was occupied with settlements in every significant bay and at every major river mouth.

From Tasman Bay and Golden Bay the Ngati Tumatakokiri expanded their influence and control down the West Coast, and inland up the principal rivers.

They controlled a huge area rich with important stone and food resources.

On the West Coast was the highly prized aromatic herb ‘kakara taramea’ which gave its name to the Karamea River, the settlement at the river mouth, and the whole Karamea Bight.

South of Cape Foulwind was Pahautane, origin of a particularly hard flint, and south of that was the settlement at the Hokitika River mouth where they found Pounamu; Greenstone. This beautiful and durable stone was admired above all others, and was traded the length and breadth of the country.

The Kawatiri river gave them access to Lakes Rotoiti and Rotoroa which were brimming with fish and waterfowl. The bluffs to the north of Lake Rotoiti gave them another source of Argillite, otherwise found on Rangitioto (D’Urville Island).

All the major rivers gave them access to the interior, and moa.

Site of the Kawatiri excavations

Site of the Kawatiri excavations

Archaeological excavations at Kawatiri (Westport) reveal occupation beginning in the early 14th century. Carbon dating of items from the site shows that it was in continuous, or near continuous occupation from that time on.

There were people at Kawatiri when Abel Tasman’s two ships sailed past.

The people living at Kawatiri were industrious, and either travelled great distances for resources, or traded widely, or both.

The settlement site was a lagoon just inside the Kawatiri (Buller) River mouth, which is now greatly reduced by silt build-up due to improvements to the river’s flow made to make Westport Harbour more accessible. The site was also much closer to the shoreline than at present due to sand accretion on the ocean beach over the intervening period.

Part of a waka prow found on Farewell Spit

Part of a waka prow found on Farewell Spit

The Ngati Tumatakokiri were living there when Abel Tasman passed by, and despite what he wrote, they did have boats. At that time all Maori had boats.

New Zealand was settled by people who came in boats from the central pacific. It was settled first around the coast, then up the rivers and only after that did some Maori become completely land-bound.

The Maori had no pack animals; no horses, donkeys, or mules, and no wheel. Apart from walking with your load on your back, boats were their only transport.

The Maori used boats for fishing, for carrying people and produce, and for trade; and trade they did.

Boats were how they moved around… and were how they moved things around.

The excavations at Kawatiri revealed large deposits of stone chips left over from adze making, and much of this came from remarkably distant sources.

Sources of the stone used for adze making at Katawiri

Sources of the stone used for adze making at Kawatiri

Pounamu came from Hokitika and further down the west coast, Pahautane flint from between Kawatiri and Māwhera (Greymouth). Argillite from the Marlborough sounds and by Lake Rotoiti, Limestone Flint from the east coast, Silcrete from Central Otago, and Obsidian from the Coromandel Peninsula and particularly Mayor Island (the Maori call Mayor Island “Tuhua”, their word for Obsidian).

Stone is heavy, and the Maori had only 2 choices; either to carry it on their backs, or put it in boats. There is no doubt whatsoever that most of the stone used at Kawatiri was carried there in boats. In the case of the Obsidian, it was the only way.

Between noon on Dec 15th and noon December 16th Tasman sailed right across the Karamea bight, and past another site of significant occupation. At the Karamea River mouth is a huge field of mizzens; old waste pits. Only a few of these have been explored, but the remains subjected to carbon dating show occupation from the thirteenth century onwards, though it is unclear if settlement was continuous, or halted around the early 1600’s. Certainly the site was occupied when European settlers arrived as the location drew the name ‘Maori Point’.

At noon of December 16th Tasman’s ships passed the entrance to the Heaphy River, another site frequented by the Maori. But as with the Karamea site it isn’t known with any certainty if there was anyone actually at the Heaphy site at that time.

Tasman said there were no people there, but at the time Kawatiri was well established as a settlement, not a transient hunting location.

Whilst it might have been difficult to see the Heemkerck or the Zeehaen, from Karamea or Heaphy, they could easily have been seen from the dune tops at Kawatiri.

The Three Steeples from the mouth on the Buller River

The Three Steeples from the mouth on the Buller River

On the morning of Dec 15th, Tasman was off the Three Steeples. He recorded that “one mile west of this point we could sound no bottom.”

In that position he was 2 Dutch myles from the dune tops next to where the Tumatakokiri lived. His ships would appear about as prominent on the horizon as those rocks. If there was anyone looking, they would have been noticed. At that distance they would be clearly distinguishable as two vessels. An observer with keen eyesight could count the sails.

We don’t know if they were seen that day; no sighting of strange ships has survived into the contemporary oral tradition. It might have been remembered in the Ngati Tumatakokiri tradition, but that was lost with their demise. All that we know for certain is that it was perfectly possible for Tasman’s ships to be seen.

Two days later however, they were seen, … and of that, there is no doubt whatsoever.

Mohua

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Journey of the Ngati Tumatakokiri to the South Island

Journey of the Ngati Tumatakokiri to the South Island

Diary. To Arapaoa

We sailed down the coast, always close enough to see it, but well clear of the reefs and breakers. Where we were going we would should never be out of sight of land.

As we went south, we kept the main land on our left and headed to the gap between the land and the big island they call Kapiti. Past kapiti we could see high land to the south west. That was where we were going.

We kept going until this land was to our west and then turned to it. It wasn’t too far across, but we had been warned to be careful. The water between the main land and Te Tau Ihu could be very dangerous. It was called ‘Te Moana-a-Raukawa’.

It would only take a few hours to cross, but the water could get very rough with a strong current, and the weather could change quickly, taking all land from sight and sweeping us away.

The men said it was a good day to cross, and soon enough we were looking up at steep tree covered hills and along a rocky shoreline. We sailed on for a while along a narrow passage, before seeing a good landing place where we beached the boats.

The men scouted the land while we prepared food.

We unwrapped and dried our Kumara, then carefully re-wrapped it. They still looked good. The weather here is warm, and there is plenty of sheltered north facing land. Soon we will burn some fields and plant the seeds.

We have found that we are on a big island, Arapaoa. The land beyond is very big indeed.

The earliest settlers in the top of the South Island were the Hāwea and Waitaha, and they had their roots in antiquity, counting the ‘fairy people’; Tūtūmaiao, Maeroro, Tūrehu, and Patupaiarehe among their ancestors.

The Ngati Mamoe, another Kurahaupo group left Heretaunga and settled the northern areas of Te Tau Ihu beginning a slow migration drift south for these original peoples. They were displaced by incoming tribes.

First came the Ngāti Wairangi, from the Whanganui district, who lived in western Mōhua. Then came the Kurahaupo people; first the Ngati Mamoe, then Ngai Tara, Ngati Tumatakokiri, and Rangitane. At each new wave of settlement the original tribes were pushed further south.

Tribes from the North Island were attracted to this region because of its minerals such as Argillite, and Pounamu, premium resources for tools and weapons. The area was also rich with local foods; seafood, sea birds, water fowl, eels and up the rivers; moa.

The history of the top of the South Island reveals a continuous series of invasions from tribes from the North.

Not all tribes were completely displaced. The Ngāti Kuia remained and integrated with successive immigrant groups; Ngāti Wairangi, the Ngāti Kopia, the Ngāti Haua, the Ngāi Tawake, the Ngāti Whakamana, the Ngā Te Heiwi and the Ngāti Tumatakokiri.

Diary. Leaving Arapaoa

We have stayed here a long time but must move on. Our cousins the Ngai Tara claim this land is their Rohe, and we are not strong enough to fight them for it. To the east are our other cousins from the Kurahaupo, the Rangitane… so we will go west. There are only a few people there. Some are Ngati Mamoe, also of the Kurahaupo and Heretaunga, and there are some others. The Waitaha have been there longer.

There is plenty of room for us there, and we are many and strong. There is a big bay there called Mohua that has good kai moana, it is warm with a fertile plain behind it and beyond that are big forests full of moa.

In Mohua we will have the fruits of the sea, and good land for our crops. It will be a good place.

Journey of the Ngati Tumatakokiri to Mohua (Golden Bay)

Journey of the Ngati Tumatakokiri to Mohua (Golden Bay)

The Ngai Tara had held some presence in the Marlborough sounds from soon after their arrival in Te Whanganui a Tara (Wellington Harbour); it was close, and lay in plain sight of their southern coast.

Over time they asserted their occupation right over the Ngati Tumatakokiri, and this appears to have been resolved without conflict. There is no record of fighting between the Ngati Tumatakokiri and either Ngai Tara or Rangitane; indeed they all acted together against enemies in the Blenheim area.

Our understanding of the timeline for the migration of the Ngati Tumatakokiri is in some respects incomplete. We don’t know exactly when they left the Taupo area, descended the River Road and moved on to the Marlborough sounds. Nor do we know how long they stayed at Arapaoa before moving to Mohua (Golden Bay).

We do however know that they were firmly established in Mohua in the Sixteenth century. But they may have been in the region a lot longer.

A drawing by Isaac Gilsemans, on the Zeehaen, shows Maori boats in Golden Bay; one in significant detail. These were double hulled vessels in the Polynesian tradition. Abel Tasman’s journal text records that two of these multi-hull boats hoisted sails.

These are important details. It shows that the Ngati Tumatakokiri still retained Polynesian sailing knowledge, and still used their boats rigged in pairs on the sea.

If the move between Heretaunga and Whanganui had taken longer than a generation, then this knowledge, and the ability to sail these boats, would have been lost at Taupo; there is no need for ocean sailing skills or technology there. It would not have been practised and therefore couldn’t be passed to the next generation. So the journey from Heretaunga to Whanganui must have occurred within a generation. At least one person who knew how to build and sail multi-hull boats must have reached the west coast, because these skills survived into the 17th century in Golden Bay.

Regarding the time spent in the Marlborough sounds there is another indicator. Tumatakokiri (Whatonga’s son) had a grandson called Nukuwaiata, and this name is memorialised as an island between D’urville Island and Arapaoa.

The Ngati Tumatakokiri could have been at the north of the South Island as early as three generations after the arrival of the Kurahaupo.

Mohua bird

The area ‘Mohua’ takes its name from this bird that was abundant in the top of the South Island until the 19th Century.

Diary. Mohua

Here in Mohua we have a good life. The mountains behind the plains are very high, and shelter us from the bad westerly weather. The bay is full of kai moana, and our Kumara grow well here.

The men used to chase moa out of the forest onto Onetahua (farewell spit) where they were trapped, but now they have to go up the rivers to find them.

There is always great feasting when they return.

Our people are spread out a long way now, south, east and west. They are up the valley, out to the ocean side, south to Katawiri and well beyond. The people in the south visit us by boat, or on foot, as there is a way to the west coast through the mountains.

When they come to trade they bring Pounamu… it is a wonder to look on and very hard. It is better than our pakohe for some things. Our pakohe fractures to a very sharp edge, but it is brittle in comparison to Pounamu and difficult to work. Often, just as the tool is nearly finished the stone will fracture the wrong way, and has to be thrown away.

Pounamu is beautiful and a good stone for working wood, but it takes a long time to grind a good edge.

We trade them Pakohe and Kumara for the green stone. They can’t grow Kumara south of this valley.

Working with Pounamu

From Te Papa. Dante Bonica, an expert in stone tools, demonstrates the shaping and polishing of pounamu. Auckland, July 2009 (Click to run the video).

This video shows Pounamu being worked. It includes demonstrations of the tools used for shaping the stone. These are similar to the tools used for cutting and drilling timber. The video also shows a piece of Argillite being fractured to create a cutting edge.

Rohe of the Ngati Tumatakokiri

Rohe of the Ngati Tumatakokiri

In Golden Bay, the Ngati Tumatakokiri flourished. By the time Abel Tasman arrived, the Ngāti Tūmatakōkiri, commanded a huge territory from the north-eastern Tasman Bay, to Cape Farewell, and down the West Coast to beyond Greymouth. Inland their range included the land up the Buller river to Lake Rotoiti and Lake Rotoroa and in the south, Lake Brunner.

The Ngāti Tūmatakōkiri were dominant for approximately two hundred years, but around 1810 they eventually fell to attacks from surrounding tribes; Ngāi Tahu from the West Coast, Ngāti Kuia and Rangitāne from the east and Ngāti Apa from the north.

The Ngāti Tūmatakōkiri was finally conquered after battles in the Parapoa Range. The surviving members were either taken into slavery, or dispersed… and with that their oral history was mostly lost.

Glossary:

Onetahua: Farewell Spit, means ‘heaped up sand’.
Te Tau Ihu: The top of the South Island.
Katawiri: Westport.
Pakohe: Argillite, a hard stone that fractures to a sharp edge.
Pounamu: Nephrite jade, also commonly called ‘Greenstone’
Kai moana: Seafood.

To the Heretaunga plains

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To Heretaunga Plains

From Nukutaurua to the Heretaunga Plains

At Nukutaurua, the Kurahaupo people had a reasonably comfortable life. The sea gave them plenty of fish and shellfish, and there were eels in the lagoons and estuaries, but the land was not so generous. The plants they had brought with them; Taro, Kumara, Yam, Aute, Gourd and Cabbage tree did not grow well there.

If they wanted the plants they had brought with them to yield crops, they needed to move.

In those times there were no roads, only a few tracks, and the Maori had no wheels or pack animals. When moving from one place to another the choice was simple. Either; walk and carry what you have with you, or put it in a boat and paddle.

The founding population of New Zealand was born of Polynesian seafarers; accomplished boat builders, navigators and sailors. Boats were the principle means of transport. As New Zealand was settled, it was populated first around its water margins, coast and river, and later, inland. To travel any significant distance except by water was extremely arduous in this hilly and unbroken land.

Diary. Heretaunga

“We set of for the plains with everything we could fit in the canoes. Some of the men returned for the rest later.

We rounded the Cape and saw across the Bay for the first time. It was a long way, but we could see the hills on the far shore in the distance; our new home. As we went around the bay we could see that there were other people in the area, we could see their fires. The men had already spoken to some of them. We wouldn’t go where the hearths are kept warm, we didn’t want to fight. We went to the land at the far Eastern end of the bay, close to Te Matau-a-Māui.

At Te Awanga we have a good little harbour, and river. Fishing is good out towards the Cape, and there are plenty of crabs and shellfish around the rocks. We have hills behind us and the plains at our side. The hills give us big trees, for building and for canoes. We burned the bush off the flat land next to us and turned the ash into the ground; it makes fine planting fields.

The soil here is good to work with; as it is neither too hard for the Ko to break, nor too wet for the young plants.

Our plants are thriving in the good soil and sunshine. They will never dry out here. Even if the land dries we will be able to give them water from the rivers. This year’s harvest will be good. Until then we have what sea and forests give us, as well as the fern root that we have been shown by the local people.

This is a bountiful land. Thank the spirits.”

Most of the Kurahaupo people moved on, but Popoto stayed and married Nanaia. Six generations later Rongomaiwahine, was born, famous for her beauty. Rogomaiwahine had exceptional lineage. She was descended from both Popoto, captain of the Kurahaupo and Ruawharo, Tohunga of the Takitimu. Rongomaiwahine rose to lead a tribe of that name, and those people remain on Mahia to this day.

Under the leadership of Whatonga, The Kurahaupo people left Nukutaurua for the lush plains around what is now known as Hastings, in Hawke’s Bay. It is a large and sheltered coastal plain with fertile soils. The plains are watered and drained by three large rivers that never run dry, and it is amongst the sunniest parts of the country. These days it is famous for its wines; a testament to the region’s wonderful growing conditions.

The people of the Kurahaupo settled on the plains, but they were not the only people that had found the location attractive… there were already groups there; the Te Tini a Awa, Ngati Mahu, Ngati Mamoe, and Ngati Ira. Each had their own territories.

One of the elements defining a tribe’s range was where their fire pits were located. Where they regularly lit fires was considered to be within their ‘rohe’, or territory. If you moved onto land that had recent fire pits on it, then you should expect that someone else had prior claim over it.

There were four principal means of acquiring territory.
– The land was vacant
– Your people had always been there
– The territory was gifted to your people by someone with rightful guardianship
– Your people took the land by conquest

If you trespassed on someone else’s land uninvited, then you should expect to be evicted.

The Kurahaupo people occupied the coast and land to the East of the Tukituki River.

Whatonga built himself a house he called ‘Heretaunga’ which was known for its fine carvings. ‘Heretaunga’ means; a place where you tie up the canoes, but over the course of time this name became used to represent the whole area.

On these fertile Heretaunga plains, the Kurahaupo people and their crops flourished.

Whatonga’s first son was born at Te Awanga, to his first wife, Hotuwaipara. They named him ‘Tara-Ika’. The story is that Whatonga went on a fishing trip to Cape Kidnappers where he caught a lot of fish. On his return his wife cut herself on the spines of one of the fish, and Tara-Ika, ‘fish spine’, was named after this event.

Cape kidnappers is known to the Maori as ‘Te Matau-a-Māui’, ‘the fishhook of Maui’ that pulled up the North Island..

Whatongas exploration

Whatonga’s exploration of the North Island

After Tara was born, Whatonga set out to explore some of this new land. He rounded Cape Kidnappers and followed the coast of the North Island in an anti-clockwise direction. He touched the top of the South Island, and entered Wellington Harbour which he named for his son; ‘Te Whanganui a Tara’, ‘The great harbour of Tara’.

He continued around the coast to the west and north and then went up the Manawatu River. At Aokautere (to the East of Palmerston North) he married his second wife, Reretua, and had another son, Tautoki. After a while, Whatonga moved on again, back to Heretaunga, bringing with him his new wife Reretua and infant Tautoki.

Reretua had at least two more sons, and Hotuwaipara had another son, Tumatakokiri.

Among the Polynesian immigrants it was common for the men to have multiple wives. These were often women from the ‘Tangata Whenua’, the ‘People of the Land’, that were already living there.

The Heretaunga Plain

The Heretaunga Plains

To the South-West of Napier is the township of Taradale. It’s original name is Omaranui, which means ‘place of abundant cultivation’. Overlooking it, and controlling the Tutaekuri River is a huge Pa site called Otatara. This is an ancient site that was occupied by the Ngati Ira when the Kurahaupo people arrived.

Tara took his people, and with the Ngati Mamoe mounted an unsuccessful assault on Otatara Pa. In retaliation, Te Whakumu, Chief of Te Ira, led 400 men in an attack on the Ngati Mamoe stronghold at Puketapu.

This indicates the scale of the population on the plains at that time; a single tribe could present 400 warriors when required.

Rangitanes Pa

Tanenuiarangi Pa, 1859, By Henry Bates. Alexander Turnbull Library. Reference Number: NON-ATL-0008. Object #11978

Tautoki married Waipuna, and they had a son Rangitane, (also known as Tānenuiarangi), who became the eponymous ancestor of the Rangitane tribe. Rangitane, built a Pa on the South side of the Ngaruroro River, in direct sight of Otatara, where he lived with his Grandfather, Whatonga. The Tānenuiarangi Pa was still occupied in 1859 when Europeans arrived, but is now the site of the Whakatu meat works.

Heretaunga became a springboard for growth, and inspired by Whatonga’s explorations, Tara set out to claim some of the new land he had discovered.

Kurahaupo expansion

The progress of the Kurahaupo population

Tara and his people made their way south from Heretaunga to ‘Te Whanganui a Tara’, Wellington Harbour. There they settled at Mirimar, which at that time was still an island. By the time Tara reached Mirimar they numbered over 200 people, and Tara had become the Eponymous ancestor of Ngai Tara. From Mirimar, Ngai Tara looked across Cook Strait to the South Island. In time they occupied the Marlborough Sounds and the coast around Nelson.

The Rangitane people expanded down the East coast occupying all that coast until their territory met with that of their cousin’s, now the Ngai Tara. From Palliser Bay they crossed to Wairau and the Blenheim plains.

The descendants of Whatonga, through Tara and Rangitane expanded their range, eventually occupying and controlling the whole of the North Island from Heretaunga south.

While Tara and Rangitane went South, another of Whatonga’s sons, Tumatakokiri, headed North-West… to Taupo.

The wreck of the Kurahaupo

Kurahaupo banner

Nukutaurua

Nukutaurua

If you travel to the Mahia Peninsula, cross to the North side, and follow the road to the East, you will pass many Urupa. They are all on the North side of the Peninsula.

This is a sacred place.

The tar seal stops at Nukutaurua, and a little further on the road ends. If you want to go further, then you have to walk.

And so it was for the crew of the Kurahaupo.

Incredibly, after successfully crossing 4,000 km of Pacific Ocean, the Kurahaupo finally came to grief on this benign looking shore on the Mahia Peninsula.

Diary: Nukutaurua

“When we left Te Hiku o Te Ika, we left Po and some others behind, but some Te Ngare joined us, and we had a crew again; there had been so few of us on that leg from Rangitahua.

‘The fire in the sky’ seems so far away now.

To Nukutaurua

The Kurahaupo’s course along the East coast of the North Island

As we traveled down the coast, on the East side of the Land we were amazed at just how enormous this land is. Often we passed between islands and the coast, and even these islands are big, some are bigger than any we have known before.

Sometimes on the land, we saw fires. There are people here and there. The Te Ngare had told us that there were others. Some have been here a long time, and some are new travelers like ourselves.

For the last days before we came here we saw only a few fires, and none since we came round a great Cape and the coast turned South.

The land around is high and tree covered, and the hills are deeply cut by valleys carrying big streams. There is plenty of water in this land but mostly the land stops high, and cliffs fall to the sea below.

As the coast turned again to the West Popoto said that we would go ashore where we next saw a good place.

At this place there was a flat plain in front of the beach, and behind were flat topped hills, grassy and bare. The hills were separated by valleys, and we could see that several good streams ran to the beach, a bigger one ran down through a wooded valley.

Popoto gave the instruction; we would land here.

The sail was lowered and we turned, the paddlers and steersmen now controlling our movements, directed by Popoto.

As the beach grew close, less than fifty paces, a shout went up, ‘reef!’

The beach, plain as it looked, had hidden reefs before it. The surf we had seen was not caused by the gentle uplift of a sandy beach floor, but by rows of reefs. Now we saw the lines of rocks running out from the shore, out to level with us, and beyond.

The men tried to turn us, but it was too late, we were trapped. The wind and the current pressed us onto a line of sharp rock, and one of our hulls smashed into it.

We were stuck, and one hull was sinking.

The wind and waves held us fast against the rocks, and try as they might, the men could not get us free. Now, with one hull filled with water, we were too heavy, and the reef gripped hard on our Kurahaupo.

Popoto told us to get everything ashore.

It was misfortune that put us on the hidden reef, but thankfully the water to the beach was shallow. We pulled all that there was from the waterlogged hull, and with everything on the deck we were, again, soon pushing through the surf, carrying with us all that we have.

We recovered everything, and salvaged what we could of our boat. Then we sat on the beach exhausted.

We warmed ourselves around fires and watched as the surf beat and broke the Kurahaupo. We will not sail on her again. “

nukutaurua reefs

The surf lines extending into the sea are lines of reefs. They extend far out under the surface.

After all they had endured; the crew of the Kurahaupo finally surrendered her to the ocean on a reef off the Mahia Peninsula.

It is remembered locally; that the Kurahaupo was bewitched and hit a reef close to the shore, that everyone survived, that the waka sank, and that it subsequently turned into a reef.

Cape Table

James Cook first made landfall in New Zealand at Gisborne on 9th September, 1769. He liked what he first saw of New Zealand so little that he left the bay just two days later, and headed South.

Wednesday, 11th September.

“We weighed and stood out of the Bay, which I have named Poverty Bay, because it afforded us no one thing we wanted.”

By noon the next day he had reached the eastern point of the Mahia Peninsula, next to an Island. He named them Cape Table, and Portland Island. These names are still used.

Thursday, 12th September.

“In the Afternoon, while we lay becalm’d, several Canoes came off to the Ship…”

“This point I have named Cape Table, on account of its shape and figure. It lies 7 Leagues to the Southward of Poverty Bay, in the Latitude of 39 degrees 7 minutes South, longitude 181 degrees 36 minutes West, it is of a moderate height, makes in a sharpe Angle, and appears to be quite flat at Top…

…We saw a great Number of the Natives assembled together on the Isle of Portland; we likewise saw some on the Main land, and several places that were Cultivated and laid out in square Plantations.”

The people that Cook saw were descended from the occupants of two waka’s; the Kurahaupo, and the Takitimu.

The local tribe is Te Rongomaiwahine, and have the common female ancestor of that name. She was of extremely noble lineage being descended from both Ruawharo, the Tohunga of the waka Tākitimu, and Popoto, commander of the Kurahaupo.

The full name of the Peninsula ‘Te Mahia mai Tawhiti’ was given by Ruawharo, as the land reminded him of where he had come from.

It means ‘The whisper of Home’.

However, only a few people from the Kurahaupo remained in Mahia. The rest of them moved onwards, looking for a more comfortable place to live.

To the plains of Heretaunga

Diary: Nukutaurua

“The men have returned from exploring, and there was a Hui. They said that some days to the South is a great and good plain with many rivers flowing through it, and that it will make us a good home.

“Popoto says he will stay here. It was decided that the rest of us will pack up what we have, and leave in the morning.

“Whatonga will lead us now.”

The Mahia peninsula provided all that was needed for survival, but on their journey down the East Coast they had seen more hospitable land. Most of the people of the Kurahaupo moved on looking for somewhere where they could enjoy an easier life; somewhere they could lay down roots… somewhere to call ‘home’.

The Great and misty land

kurahaupo banner

Kurahaupo progress

The Kurahaupo’s progress across the Pacific Ocean

The people of the Kurahaupo had traveled 3,000 km from Raiatea. With their boat repaired, they set sail again from Rangitahua, on the final ocean leg of their voyage.

The closest land is the North Cape of New Zealand…. 1,000 km to the West-South-West. If their course was good, and the weather fair, they would make that distance in about 10 days.

Diary: The ‘Great and misty land’

”We had been on the ocean over a week when we first saw the land sign. Land was still far off, beyond the horizon, but we could see the signs. In the direction we were sailing there should be nothing… nothing that is except Kupe’s ‘Great and Misty Land’… and now, we were approaching it.”

The next afternoon we saw it… what excitement there was. Ahead and to our right we could see the green of hills… green!. As we sailed the land grew slowly higher. What we could see wasn’t a huge land, like we were expecting, but it was definitely at least a big island. We carried on until dusk, and then lowered our sail. We didn’t want to be cast ashore in the night. We were carried on now only by the current and our wind drift.

The excitement kept us from anything but fitful sleep, but soon we were all wide awake.

We weren’t sure at first, but then it came clearer. We could hear breakers!

The current had carried us far and fast towards the shore… but in the dark we couldn’t see it. Finally we could just make out the faint blur of foam on a beach, and the men jumped to their thwarts, paddles in hand. Working to Pōhurihanga’s commands they turned the prow to the beach, but the current was strong. We were carried along the beach and came to a sudden, cracking stop.

Tom Bowling Bay

Te Huka Bay, with Tom Bowling Bay in the distance. The ‘Kurahaupo Rocks’ are the low lying rocks at the end of the beach.”

We had hit rocks.

We could now see the foam of the surf, it was very close, and very loud. We were nearly in it. A couple of men jumped in the water… they could stand! Then it was all action as we rushed to unload our treasures to the shore.

In the darkness we realised that there were others with us, helping us rescue our possessions from the sea; there were unfamiliar voices among us… strangers.

We stayed there on the beach and huddled for warmth until dawn, and with the light of day we met our rescuers. They are the people of the Te Ngake, and they live here.

We owe a lot to these people who came to our aid. Their sentry above the beach at Tomokanga had raised the alarm, and the villagers had come out in the night… and they had helped us.

We had arrived uninvited and in the darkness, yet they had helped us. We had made no courtesies or introductions, yet they still came to our aid. They had every right to cut us down on the beach as we landed… but they had not.

The Te Ngake made us welcome among them, and we have learned much from them. They have been here a long time, their ancestor Ruatāmore arrived on the waka Taikoria over twenty generations ago. They call this area ‘Te Hiku o Te Ika’, and it is the very northernmost part of the land. Pōhurihanga was correct to call it ‘muriwhenua’. They tell us there is much, more land to the South.

The Kurahaupo is in pieces again, but the men say it can be repaired. The Te Ngake have helped us drag her from the rocks, and up the stream to their village here. The stream is called Waitangi. The men will work on her here.

It is hard to believe that we are here… we have made it. We have finally reached Kupe’s ‘great and misty land’. What has become of those that went on the Aotea and the Mata-atua we do not know, but the rest of us have made it here, and we are all well.

May the Gods be praised.

[ Tom Bowling Bay photograph citation: Rāwiri Taonui. ‘Canoe traditions – Canoes of the northern tide’, Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 15 Nov-12 URL: http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/photograph/2304/takapaukura-tom-bowling-bay ]

Kurahaupo landfall

The Kurahaupo’s landfall at Tom Bowling Bay

As the people of the Kurahaupo reached New Zealand they again met with misadventure, this time hitting rocks in the dark. But their good fortune held, in the darkness they had come ashore on a beach, missing the cliffs arrayed to their left and right. They had hit rocks, but were within wading distance of the shore, and people had come to their aid. On landing, Pōhurihanga declared that they had reached ‘muriwhenua’, ‘the end of the land’.

They were helped by the local tribe, the ‘Te Ngake’, with whom they stayed until the Kurahaupo was repaired, and they were able to move on again. There were already people living where the Kurahaupo made landfall, and these people had been there for 23 generations.

Diary: South

The men have worked well on the Kurahaupo and she can sail again. The binding are again made anew. This time we made the rope from a strong flax that we were shown, it grows in abundance near here.

The people here have been very good to us, but we must move on. We cannot continue to take their food when we can go elsewhere and find our own.

Not all of us are leaving. Pōhurihanga, and some of the others are staying; Pōhurihanga has fallen for a local girl Maieke.

>We are told that there is much, much more land to the south, and that the best way is to follow the Eastern coastline, there is no need for any more ocean passage. They say you can go down the West coast too, but it is stormy and a more dangerous shoreline. So we are going South, by the Eastern coast, to find our new home.

Popoto will lead us now that Pōhurihanga has left the boat.

Departure course

The Kurahaupo’s course from Tom Bowling Bay

When the Kurahupo left, Pōhurihanga stayed in Te Hiku o Te Ika. He married Maieke who was a chiefly duaghter, and became their chief. They had a daughter ‘Muriwhenua’ who later moved south and married Rongokako from the Tākitimu canoe.

‘Muriwhenua’ is still used as the collective name for the six tribes of the Far North: Ngāti Kurī, Ngāi Takoto, Te Pātū, Ngāti Kahu, Te Aupōuri and Te Rarawa.

When Pōhurihanga and Maieke married, and he became chief and two ancestral lines joined. Because of this, the Te Ngake history, and that of the Kurahaupo’s are both remembered. In time the Te Ngake became known as Ngati Kuri, but the account of the Kurahaupo’s arrival was not forgotten due to the link through Pōhurihanga.

The Ngati Kuri remember that the Kurahaupo was damaged at sea, and that it stopped for repairs at ‘Rangitahua’, ‘fire in the sky’. The Te Ngake obviously knew that Raoul Island was volcanic. In the Ngati Kuri account, the Kurahaupo stayed on Rangitahua for some time, and during that time some of the crew joined other vessels. Pōhurihanga fishing net and seal skins were used to repair the damage to the Kurahaupo, after which they were able to sail on.

The Kurahaupo finally made landfall at Te Huka Bay, the beach at the West end of Tom Bowling Bay, thereby completing a total ocean voyage of 4,000 km from Raiatea to New Zealand. They had achieved this without loss of life, in a vessel constructed using entirely stone tools.

Kurahaupo rocks

Click to open map

The arrival and wreck of the Kurahaupo is not only remembered in the Tribal history of the Ngati Kuri… the Kurahaupo’s presence at North Cape is recorded to this day on New Zealand’s Topographic maps.