Tag Archives: Voyage

Kawatiri

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“we saw no human beings nor any smoke rising; nor can the people here have any boats, since we did not see any signs of them”

Range of the Ngati Tumatakokiri

Range of the Ngati Tumatakokiri

Whilst Tasman may have seen no signs of people, they were there. The North and West coasts of the South Island had been occupied for a long time, and in many locations.

The Waitaha people had been there since at least the thirteenth century and were displaced by the Ngati Wairangi and others, who in turn were displaced in the mid sixteenth century by the Ngati Tumatakokiri; descendants of the Kurahaupo voyagers. In time the Ngati Tumatakokiri too fell to other invaders.

Archaeological evidence shows that the whole North facing coast was occupied with settlements in every significant bay and at every major river mouth.

From Tasman Bay and Golden Bay the Ngati Tumatakokiri expanded their influence and control down the West Coast, and inland up the principal rivers.

They controlled a huge area rich with important stone and food resources.

On the West Coast was the highly prized aromatic herb ‘kakara taramea’ which gave its name to the Karamea River, the settlement at the river mouth, and the whole Karamea Bight.

South of Cape Foulwind was Pahautane, origin of a particularly hard flint, and south of that was the settlement at the Hokitika River mouth where they found Pounamu; Greenstone. This beautiful and durable stone was admired above all others, and was traded the length and breadth of the country.

The Kawatiri river gave them access to Lakes Rotoiti and Rotoroa which were brimming with fish and waterfowl. The bluffs to the north of Lake Rotoiti gave them another source of Argillite, otherwise found on Rangitioto (D’Urville Island).

All the major rivers gave them access to the interior, and moa.

Site of the Kawatiri excavations

Site of the Kawatiri excavations

Archaeological excavations at Kawatiri (Westport) reveal occupation beginning in the early 14th century. Carbon dating of items from the site shows that it was in continuous, or near continuous occupation from that time on.

There were people at Kawatiri when Abel Tasman’s two ships sailed past.

The people living at Kawatiri were industrious, and either travelled great distances for resources, or traded widely, or both.

The settlement site was a lagoon just inside the Kawatiri (Buller) River mouth, which is now greatly reduced by silt build-up due to improvements to the river’s flow made to make Westport Harbour more accessible. The site was also much closer to the shoreline than at present due to sand accretion on the ocean beach over the intervening period.

Part of a waka prow found on Farewell Spit

Part of a waka prow found on Farewell Spit

The Ngati Tumatakokiri were living there when Abel Tasman passed by, and despite what he wrote, they did have boats. At that time all Maori had boats.

New Zealand was settled by people who came in boats from the central pacific. It was settled first around the coast, then up the rivers and only after that did some Maori become completely land-bound.

The Maori had no pack animals; no horses, donkeys, or mules, and no wheel. Apart from walking with your load on your back, boats were their only transport.

The Maori used boats for fishing, for carrying people and produce, and for trade; and trade they did.

Boats were how they moved around… and were how they moved things around.

The excavations at Kawatiri revealed large deposits of stone chips left over from adze making, and much of this came from remarkably distant sources.

Sources of the stone used for adze making at Katawiri

Sources of the stone used for adze making at Kawatiri

Pounamu came from Hokitika and further down the west coast, Pahautane flint from between Kawatiri and Māwhera (Greymouth). Argillite from the Marlborough sounds and by Lake Rotoiti, Limestone Flint from the east coast, Silcrete from Central Otago, and Obsidian from the Coromandel Peninsula and particularly Mayor Island (the Maori call Mayor Island “Tuhua”, their word for Obsidian).

Stone is heavy, and the Maori had only 2 choices; either to carry it on their backs, or put it in boats. There is no doubt whatsoever that most of the stone used at Kawatiri was carried there in boats. In the case of the Obsidian, it was the only way.

Between noon on Dec 15th and noon December 16th Tasman sailed right across the Karamea bight, and past another site of significant occupation. At the Karamea River mouth is a huge field of mizzens; old waste pits. Only a few of these have been explored, but the remains subjected to carbon dating show occupation from the thirteenth century onwards, though it is unclear if settlement was continuous, or halted around the early 1600’s. Certainly the site was occupied when European settlers arrived as the location drew the name ‘Maori Point’.

At noon of December 16th Tasman’s ships passed the entrance to the Heaphy River, another site frequented by the Maori. But as with the Karamea site it isn’t known with any certainty if there was anyone actually at the Heaphy site at that time.

Tasman said there were no people there, but at the time Kawatiri was well established as a settlement, not a transient hunting location.

Whilst it might have been difficult to see the Heemkerck or the Zeehaen, from Karamea or Heaphy, they could easily have been seen from the dune tops at Kawatiri.

The Three Steeples from the mouth on the Buller River

The Three Steeples from the mouth on the Buller River

On the morning of Dec 15th, Tasman was off the Three Steeples. He recorded that “one mile west of this point we could sound no bottom.”

In that position he was 2 Dutch myles from the dune tops next to where the Tumatakokiri lived. His ships would appear about as prominent on the horizon as those rocks. If there was anyone looking, they would have been noticed. At that distance they would be clearly distinguishable as two vessels. An observer with keen eyesight could count the sails.

We don’t know if they were seen that day; no sighting of strange ships has survived into the contemporary oral tradition. It might have been remembered in the Ngati Tumatakokiri tradition, but that was lost with their demise. All that we know for certain is that it was perfectly possible for Tasman’s ships to be seen.

Two days later however, they were seen, … and of that, there is no doubt whatsoever.

To Anchor

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Tasmans progress to his arrival in New Zealand

Tasmans progress to his arrival in New Zealand

As Tasman and his ships crossed the sea now named after him, he saw a large high land, and turned to it straight away. He fired a cannon to alert the Zeehaen to his change in course.

It was a momentous occasion.

1628 Map of the World

1628 Map of the World (click to enlarge)

The land they had already discovered, “Anthony van Diemens Landt”, wasn’t unexpected; the Dutch already knew about Australia. The VOC already knew of over half of its coastline; to the North, West and South, only the eastern limits were unknown.

From Van Diemens Landt they sailed directly East, now in completely unknown waters; they were beyond all the extremities marked on their charts.

This English map from 1628 shows “The Southern Unknown Land” as a vague line bearing the inscription “This South part of the World (contayning almost the third part of the Globe) is yet unknowne certayne sea coasts excepted: which rather shew there is a land then discry eyther land, people, or Comodities.”

They were sailing in a huge area that was a blank on the maps. At this latitude, the whole ocean between South America, and Australia was a void, filled only by the imaginings of the cartographers.

There, in that void, Tasman had found land.

In the afternoon Tasman convened the Ships Council, and they had decided to make for the land “as quickly as at all possible”.

Whilst there would have been excitement about this new discovery, it would have been tempered with apprehension. The rumours about the Great South Land spoke of Gold and Silver, but Tasman’s written instructions also noted that “it is well-known that the southern regions are peopled by fierce savages”.

There were also practical matters to consider. The last time they had taken water and firewood on board was in Mauritius. That was 67 days ago, and they had a contingent of 110 to be kept fed and watered; re-supply was important. The other concern was that this was a lee shore.

Their expectation and experience was that south-westerly winds dominated in this latitude, and they were sailing in “huge hollow waves and heavy swells” coming from the South-West.

Tasmans progress to his arrival in New Zealand

Tasmans progress to the New Zealand coast

As they continued south-east and closed on the shore, it became apparent that this was indeed a large land. They were approaching a coast that ran from South-west to North-east. It was not a group of islands with passages between and offering the chance of shelter behind, but a continuous lee shore… and they were approaching it in darkness.

Turning east would slow their progress towards land, but importantly it would also give them an easy tack to run parallel to the coast should a strong south-westerly blew up. They instructed their steersmen to continue on their South-east course unless the wind strengthened.

At 10:00 pm they turned East, and held that course until daylight.

With the dawn they found themselves close to the shore.

Serpentine Beach, Kumara Junction, with Mt Cook and Mt Tasman in the background

Serpentine Beach, Kumara Junction, with Mt Cook and Mt Tasman in the background

Tasman’s expedition first met the coast of New Zealand between Greymouth and Hokitika, near Kumara Junction, on the morning of December 14th, 1642.

“We were about 2 myles off the coast, which showed as a very high double land, but we could not see the summits of the mountains owing to thick clouds. We shaped our course to northward along the coast, so near to it that we could constantly see the surf break on the shore.”

They turned to follow the coast north, and began the first documented exploration of New Zealand.

Tasman's approach to Cape Foulwind

Tasman’s approach to Cape Foulwind

At midday Tasman recorded an ‘observed’ latitude of 42° 10′, placing him between Barrytown, and Punakaiki. Towards evening “we saw a low-lying point north-east by north of us, at about 3 miles distance;”.

He named it Clyppige Hoek, Rocky Point. Later, James Cook called it Cape Foulwind; (he wasn’t having a good time when he sailed past there). The Maori that lived in the area already had a name for it; Omau. It was a favoured place for seals and shellfish.

They sailed towards the Cape until the wind dropped away completely, and then found themselves drifting in a current that carried them closer and closer to the shore.

Tasman's position at anchor

Tasman’s position at anchor

As they drifted, the water was becoming shallower, until they found themselves in 28 fathoms, “where, on account of the calm, and for fear of drifting nearer to the shore, we ran out our kedge-anchor during the day-watch”

Conditions must have been very calm indeed as their “kedge-anchor” was not one of their main anchors, but a small one. It was the light anchor that they used for ‘warping’; pulling themselves into the wind, and out of awkward harbours… like Mauritius.

In the morning he reported “we then had the northernmost low-lying point of the day before, north-north-east and north-east by north of us”. This shows that the direction of their drift had been constant, and towards the Cape, and from this we can calculate his position at anchor.

Tasman’s first anchorage in New Zealand was 5 km off Nine Mile Beach, immediately to the South of Cape Foulwind.

Nine Mile Beach

Nine Mile Beach

This is the complete journal entry for December 14th, 1642.

“At noon Latitude observed 42° 10′, Longitude 189° 3′; course kept east, sailed 12 miles. We were about 2 miles off the coast, which showed as a very high double land, but we could not see the summits of the mountains owing to thick clouds. We shaped our course to northward along the coast, so near to it that we could constantly see the surf break on the shore. In the afternoon we took soundings at about 2 miles distance from the coast in 55 fathom, a sticky sandy soil, after which it fell a calm. Towards evening we saw a low-lying point north-east by north of us, at about 3 miles distance; the greater part of the time we were drifting in a calm towards the said point; in the middle of the afternoon we took soundings in 45 fathom, a sticky sandy bottom. The whole night we drifted in a calm, the sea running from the west-north-west, so that we got near the land in 28 fathom, good anchoring-ground, where, on account of the calm, and for fear of drifting nearer to the shore, we ran out our kedge-anchor during the day-watch, and we are now waiting for the land-wind.”

Lee shore

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Shipwrecks on the Hokitika shoreline

Citation “Shipwrecks at Hokitika River mouth, West Coast. Greymouth Evening Star : Photographs of the West Coast. Ref: 1/2-050050-F. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/22517348”

In January 1642, whilst the voyage was still being planned, Visscher had written to Head Office in Amsterdam making recommendations on the timing, and the course of the expedition.

His recommendation was that they should explore in an easterly direction. But their understanding of the winds at that latitude gave cause for concern.

“so that with the wind blowing hard from the west, which would make the coast there a lee shore, one would be exposed to many perils.”

Their experience and their expectation was that westerly gales were normal in this latitude and that when they approached land, they would be coming from the west.

Any new land discovered would lie across their path, and downwind of them… a lee shore.

Their square rigged ships couldn’t make way into the wind, the best they could achieve was to sail across it. A lee shore meant they risked being wrecked if the wind and swell strengthened.

After sighting Land, Tasman turned the Heemskerck towards it, fired a cannon to alert the Zeehaen to his change of course. In the afternoon, he convened the Ships Council. They decided to make for the land “as soon as at all possible”.

As they continued on their south-east course through the afternoon and evening, more land came into view and it became apparent that the land was large, and ran from South West to North East.

It wasn’t a group of islands with passages in between, this was a continuous lee shore. It was extremely dangerous to stay on this course in the darkness.

“In the evening we deemed it best and gave orders accordingly to our steersmen to stick to the south-east course while the weather keeps quiet but, should the breeze freshen, to steer due east in order to avoid running on shore, and to preclude accidents as much as in us lies; since we opine that the land should not be touched at from this side on account of the high open sea running there in huge hollow waves and heavy swells, unless there should happen to be safe land-locked bays on this side. At the expiration of four glasses of the first watch we shaped our course due east.”

Tasman's approach to the New Zealand Coast

Tasman’s approach to the New Zealand Coast

They decided that if the wind picked up they would turn to the East “to preclude accidents”. This would slow their progress towards land during darkness, allowing daylight to return before approaching the shore, in search of “safe land-locked bays”.

At 10:00 at night, they turned to the east, and in the morning they found themselves 2 myles from the shore.

Abel Tasman reached the New Zealand shoreline near Kumara Junction; north of Hokitika and south of Greymouth.

Tasman is sometimes referred to as ‘the timid explorer’, but his reluctance to approach the west coast of New Zealand shouldn’t be interpreted as lack of daring, but as due prudence. New Zealand’s West Coast is a dangerous place for shipping; the wrecks along its length are silent testament to this.

Shipwreck on the Greymouth Bar

Citation “Ring, James, 1856-1939. The steam ship “Hawea” run ashore at the entrance to the Grey River, Greymouth. Ref: 1/2-137181-F. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand. http://natlib.govt.nz/records/22897776″

During the West Coast Gold Rush of the 1860’s, Hokitika was a busy place. It was the main supply port for men and supplies bound for the gold fields… but it was a lee shore, and dangerous. In a single gale in 1863, 8 vessels were driven onto the shore around Hokitika.

Tasman’s caution navigating the West Coast of New Zealand was perfectly appropriate.

When James Cook sailed down the West Coast of New Zealand, he showed the same caution as Tasman, only occasionally going close ashore. Despite charting the entire West Coast of both Islands, Cook noted none of the main harbours; Kawhia, Aotea, Raglan, Manukau, Kaipara or Hokianga. He never went close enough to the coast to see the entrances.

Tasman had encountered difficulties with the lee shore in Tasmania and had the same problem again. It would continue to be problematic for the duration of his exploration of New Zealand.

First Land

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Abel Tasman's actual vs estimated position on Dec 13th 1642.

Abel Tasman’s actual vs estimated position on Dec 13th 1642.

On December 13th 1642, Abel Tasman was nowhere near where he thought he was.

While Tasman’s Latitude was correct, his longitude estimation between Tasmania and New Zealand was wrong by over a degree.

In his journal entry for 14th December Tasman wrote something that exposed this error.

He described being so close to the coast that he could see the surf breaking, yet according to his longitude estimate he was still 150 km from the nearest land.

At noon on 14th of December Tasman also put this in his journal; “At noon Latitude observed 42° 10′, Longitude 189°3′; course kept east, sailed 12 myles. We were about 2 myles off the coast.” (a Dutch ‘myle’ is one fifteenth of a degree of latitude, or 7.4km).

This allows us to reconstruct exactly where he was at noon on Dec 13th.

Abel Tasman's actual vs estimated position on Dec 13th 1642.

Abel Tasman’s actual vs estimated position on Dec 13th 1642.

He was 2 myles off the coast, and had sailed directly east 12 myles since the previous day… and for that day, Tasman had been able to make a sighting of the midday sun; and he recorded an ‘observed’ latitude 42° 10’s.

At midday on December 13th 1642, Abel Tasman was in the latitude 42° 10’s, 104 km off the coast, and heading south east towards ‘large, high-lying land’. The land was ‘at about 15 myles distance’; approximately 110 km.

So what was the high land had had seen and was sailing towards?

This analysis shows which land was visible to Tasman from his location at noon.

Geographic analysis of the land visible to Abel Tasman from his noon position on Dec 13th.

Geographic analysis showing the land visible to Abel Tasman from his noon position on Dec 13th.

The peaks nearer the coast, Mt Camelback and Mt Grahem were visible to him, but at 561m and 828m respectively they were very low on his horizon and most likely lost in the surface haze.

Most of his skyline was formed by the line of peaks in the middle distance; Cairn Peak (1,859), Mt Reeves (1,783m), Mt O’Connor (1,815m) and Mt Bowen (1,985). Tasman wrote that he saw land about 15 myles away, and this line of peaks is 17 ½ myles from his noon position.

The distant skyline filled the gaps between these peaks and comprises mountains at the northern end of the Southern Alps, including Mt Murchison (2,400m) and Urquarts Peak (2,118m). These peaks form a slightly higher horizon, but are further away; nearly 20 ‘myles’.

Abel Tasman could have seen the biggest peaks in the Southern Alps; Mt Cook and Mt Tasman. They were well above his horizon, and even though Mt Cook (3754m) was 160 km away, it’s perfectly possible to see it from this distance in favourable conditions.

Mount Cook seen from  Fourteen Mile beach, 140km away

Mount Cook seen from Fourteen Mile beach, 140km away

From his actual position on 13th December he could have seen Mt Cook and Mt Tasman; the biggest peaks in the Southern Alps, but he could not have seen them to his south east. If he had seen them, he would have recorded seeing them to his south-south-west.

When Tasman saw a ‘large, high-lying land’, he was not looking at that snow capped peak that now bears his name, but at Mount O’Connor, Mount Reeves, and Cairn Peak.

The first 'high land' that Abel Tasman saw.

The first ‘high-lying land’ that Abel Tasman saw.

This, is the ‘high-lying land’ that was seen by Abel Tasman.

The main peak appearing south east of Abel Tasman on Dec 13th 1642 was Mt O’Connor, 1,815m.

A large, high-lying land

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On December 5th 1642 Tasman and his Council decided that since the wind direction would no longer allow them to follow the coast of Tasmania, they should turn East.

“we could no longer steer near the coast here, seeing that the wind was almost ahead. We therefore convened the Council and the second mates, with whom after due deliberation we resolved, and subsequently called out to the officers of the Zeehaan that, pursuant to the resolution of the 11th ultimo we should direct our course due east…

… we then shaped our course due east for the purpose of making further discoveries”

Abel Tasman's path across the Tasman Sea

Abel Tasman’s path to December 13th

For the next seven days Tasman sailed east, and his journal includes only the day’s weather and his routine report of; position, course kept and distance sailed. On Dec 12th he recorded that he was not expecting to find land as he was experiencing open ocean swells.

“The heavy swells continuing from the south-west, there is no mainland to be expected here to southward”

In this, he was wrong. There isn’t land to the South-west of his position on that day, but there is land to the South, and he was much closer to it than he suspected.

Abel Tasman's path across the Tasman Sea

Abel Tasman’s path to December 13th

His journal for the following day began routinely, reporting his observed latitude, estimated longitude, and the weather. However, it continued…

“Towards noon we saw a large, high-lying land, bearing south-east of us at about 15 myles distance”

On December 13th, 1642 Abel Tasman and his crews saw New Zealand, and Tasman wrote the words “Groot in hooch verheven Landt’… ‘a large, high-lying land’ in his journal. Abel Tasman, his journal, both vessels and most of the crew survived the voyage. Copies of journal still exist, making theirs the earliest validated European discovery of New Zealand.

This is the complete Journal entry for December 13th, 1642.

The page from Abel Tasman's journal including the entry for December 13th

The page from Abel Tasman’s journal including the entry for December 13th

“13th December”

Latitude observed 42° 10′, Longitude 188° 28′; course kept east by north, sailed 36 myles in a south-south-westerly wind with a top-gallant gale. Towards noon we saw a large, high-lying land, bearing south-east of us at about 15 myles distance; we turned our course to the south-east, making straight for this land, fired a gun and in the afternoon hoisted the white flag, upon which the officers of the Zeehaan came on board of us, with whom we resolved to touch at the said land as quickly as at all possible, for such reasons as are more amply set forth in this day’s resolution. In the evening we deemed it best and gave orders accordingly to our steersmen to stick to the south-east course while the weather keeps quiet but, should the breeze freshen, to steer due east in order to avoid running on shore, and to preclude accidents as much as in us lies; since we opine that the land should not be touched at from this side on account of the high open sea running there in huge hollow waves and heavy swells, unless there should happen to be safe land-locked bays on this side. At the expiration of four glasses of the first watch we shaped our course due east. Variation 7° 30′ North-East.”

Just before noon they saw land, and immediately turned towards it. They were travelling east, and they turned to the south-east. After noon the council was convened and it was decided to continue south-east and reach the land ‘as soon as possible’.

Tasman’s position at anchor in Marion Bay, Tasmania was -42° 50′s, 147° 57′e (relative to Greenwich). By noon on Dec 13th he estimated his position to be 20° 58′ further East, and he measured his latitude at noon as -42° 10′s.

Correcting his longitude error, based on his actual position at anchor in Tasmania, gives us an adjusted Dec 13th position of -42° 10′s 168° 55′e.

Tasman reported seeing land to the south-east; not south-east by east, or south-east by south… he uses a 32 point compass. When he wrote ‘south-east’, this means that the land he saw lay between south-east by east, and south-east by south… or Bearing 123° to 147°.

Land to the South East

Land to the South East

So what was this land they saw to the south east? … bearing between 123° and 147°, from -42° 10′s 168° 55′e.

The Southern Alps from Gillespies Beach on the West Coast

The Southern Alps from Gillespies Beach on the West Coast

If you look south-east from this location, in the direction 123° to 147° (South-east by South to South-east by East), you see the Southern Alps. Mount Cook would be on the right hand edge of your view, with Mt Tasman slightly to its left.

This picture is taken on Gillespies Beach, on the West Coast. It is 7 ‘myles’ to the peaks. Mt Tasman is on left, and Mt Cook is centre-right.

However, there’s a problem with this.

From his December 13th estimated location, whilst the highest peaks of the Southern Alps are roughly in the direction Tasman gave, they are too far away.

From that location those peaks are 26 ‘myles’ away (194 km), and although it’s obviously difficult to judge ‘line of sight’ distance, this is almost double the 15 ‘myles’ recorded by Tasman. Also, whilst these mountains are high enough to be above the horizon at this distance; at 194 km, they’re a long, long way off. It is sometimes possible to see this distance, from sea level, in New Zealand… but it is quite unusual.

The next morning Abel Tasman saw the land clearly, and made a note in his journal that allows us calculate precisely where he was at noon on Dec 13th… and it’s not where he thought he was.

Abel Tasman had sighted New Zealand but he did not see Mt Cook, or Mt Tasman.

His estimated longitude, even after adjustment relative to his Tasmanian anchorage, was wrong by 116 km.

Mohua

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Journey of the Ngati Tumatakokiri to the South Island

Journey of the Ngati Tumatakokiri to the South Island

Diary. To Arapaoa

We sailed down the coast, always close enough to see it, but well clear of the reefs and breakers. Where we were going we would should never be out of sight of land.

As we went south, we kept the main land on our left and headed to the gap between the land and the big island they call Kapiti. Past kapiti we could see high land to the south west. That was where we were going.

We kept going until this land was to our west and then turned to it. It wasn’t too far across, but we had been warned to be careful. The water between the main land and Te Tau Ihu could be very dangerous. It was called ‘Te Moana-a-Raukawa’.

It would only take a few hours to cross, but the water could get very rough with a strong current, and the weather could change quickly, taking all land from sight and sweeping us away.

The men said it was a good day to cross, and soon enough we were looking up at steep tree covered hills and along a rocky shoreline. We sailed on for a while along a narrow passage, before seeing a good landing place where we beached the boats.

The men scouted the land while we prepared food.

We unwrapped and dried our Kumara, then carefully re-wrapped it. They still looked good. The weather here is warm, and there is plenty of sheltered north facing land. Soon we will burn some fields and plant the seeds.

We have found that we are on a big island, Arapaoa. The land beyond is very big indeed.

The earliest settlers in the top of the South Island were the Hāwea and Waitaha, and they had their roots in antiquity, counting the ‘fairy people’; Tūtūmaiao, Maeroro, Tūrehu, and Patupaiarehe among their ancestors.

The Ngati Mamoe, another Kurahaupo group left Heretaunga and settled the northern areas of Te Tau Ihu beginning a slow migration drift south for these original peoples. They were displaced by incoming tribes.

First came the Ngāti Wairangi, from the Whanganui district, who lived in western Mōhua. Then came the Kurahaupo people; first the Ngati Mamoe, then Ngai Tara, Ngati Tumatakokiri, and Rangitane. At each new wave of settlement the original tribes were pushed further south.

Tribes from the North Island were attracted to this region because of its minerals such as Argillite, and Pounamu, premium resources for tools and weapons. The area was also rich with local foods; seafood, sea birds, water fowl, eels and up the rivers; moa.

The history of the top of the South Island reveals a continuous series of invasions from tribes from the North.

Not all tribes were completely displaced. The Ngāti Kuia remained and integrated with successive immigrant groups; Ngāti Wairangi, the Ngāti Kopia, the Ngāti Haua, the Ngāi Tawake, the Ngāti Whakamana, the Ngā Te Heiwi and the Ngāti Tumatakokiri.

Diary. Leaving Arapaoa

We have stayed here a long time but must move on. Our cousins the Ngai Tara claim this land is their Rohe, and we are not strong enough to fight them for it. To the east are our other cousins from the Kurahaupo, the Rangitane… so we will go west. There are only a few people there. Some are Ngati Mamoe, also of the Kurahaupo and Heretaunga, and there are some others. The Waitaha have been there longer.

There is plenty of room for us there, and we are many and strong. There is a big bay there called Mohua that has good kai moana, it is warm with a fertile plain behind it and beyond that are big forests full of moa.

In Mohua we will have the fruits of the sea, and good land for our crops. It will be a good place.

Journey of the Ngati Tumatakokiri to Mohua (Golden Bay)

Journey of the Ngati Tumatakokiri to Mohua (Golden Bay)

The Ngai Tara had held some presence in the Marlborough sounds from soon after their arrival in Te Whanganui a Tara (Wellington Harbour); it was close, and lay in plain sight of their southern coast.

Over time they asserted their occupation right over the Ngati Tumatakokiri, and this appears to have been resolved without conflict. There is no record of fighting between the Ngati Tumatakokiri and either Ngai Tara or Rangitane; indeed they all acted together against enemies in the Blenheim area.

Our understanding of the timeline for the migration of the Ngati Tumatakokiri is in some respects incomplete. We don’t know exactly when they left the Taupo area, descended the River Road and moved on to the Marlborough sounds. Nor do we know how long they stayed at Arapaoa before moving to Mohua (Golden Bay).

We do however know that they were firmly established in Mohua in the Sixteenth century. But they may have been in the region a lot longer.

A drawing by Isaac Gilsemans, on the Zeehaen, shows Maori boats in Golden Bay; one in significant detail. These were double hulled vessels in the Polynesian tradition. Abel Tasman’s journal text records that two of these multi-hull boats hoisted sails.

These are important details. It shows that the Ngati Tumatakokiri still retained Polynesian sailing knowledge, and still used their boats rigged in pairs on the sea.

If the move between Heretaunga and Whanganui had taken longer than a generation, then this knowledge, and the ability to sail these boats, would have been lost at Taupo; there is no need for ocean sailing skills or technology there. It would not have been practised and therefore couldn’t be passed to the next generation. So the journey from Heretaunga to Whanganui must have occurred within a generation. At least one person who knew how to build and sail multi-hull boats must have reached the west coast, because these skills survived into the 17th century in Golden Bay.

Regarding the time spent in the Marlborough sounds there is another indicator. Tumatakokiri (Whatonga’s son) had a grandson called Nukuwaiata, and this name is memorialised as an island between D’urville Island and Arapaoa.

The Ngati Tumatakokiri could have been at the north of the South Island as early as three generations after the arrival of the Kurahaupo.

Mohua bird

The area ‘Mohua’ takes its name from this bird that was abundant in the top of the South Island until the 19th Century.

Diary. Mohua

Here in Mohua we have a good life. The mountains behind the plains are very high, and shelter us from the bad westerly weather. The bay is full of kai moana, and our Kumara grow well here.

The men used to chase moa out of the forest onto Onetahua (farewell spit) where they were trapped, but now they have to go up the rivers to find them.

There is always great feasting when they return.

Our people are spread out a long way now, south, east and west. They are up the valley, out to the ocean side, south to Katawiri and well beyond. The people in the south visit us by boat, or on foot, as there is a way to the west coast through the mountains.

When they come to trade they bring Pounamu… it is a wonder to look on and very hard. It is better than our pakohe for some things. Our pakohe fractures to a very sharp edge, but it is brittle in comparison to Pounamu and difficult to work. Often, just as the tool is nearly finished the stone will fracture the wrong way, and has to be thrown away.

Pounamu is beautiful and a good stone for working wood, but it takes a long time to grind a good edge.

We trade them Pakohe and Kumara for the green stone. They can’t grow Kumara south of this valley.

Working with Pounamu

From Te Papa. Dante Bonica, an expert in stone tools, demonstrates the shaping and polishing of pounamu. Auckland, July 2009 (Click to run the video).

This video shows Pounamu being worked. It includes demonstrations of the tools used for shaping the stone. These are similar to the tools used for cutting and drilling timber. The video also shows a piece of Argillite being fractured to create a cutting edge.

Rohe of the Ngati Tumatakokiri

Rohe of the Ngati Tumatakokiri

In Golden Bay, the Ngati Tumatakokiri flourished. By the time Abel Tasman arrived, the Ngāti Tūmatakōkiri, commanded a huge territory from the north-eastern Tasman Bay, to Cape Farewell, and down the West Coast to beyond Greymouth. Inland their range included the land up the Buller river to Lake Rotoiti and Lake Rotoroa and in the south, Lake Brunner.

The Ngāti Tūmatakōkiri were dominant for approximately two hundred years, but around 1810 they eventually fell to attacks from surrounding tribes; Ngāi Tahu from the West Coast, Ngāti Kuia and Rangitāne from the east and Ngāti Apa from the north.

The Ngāti Tūmatakōkiri was finally conquered after battles in the Parapoa Range. The surviving members were either taken into slavery, or dispersed… and with that their oral history was mostly lost.

Glossary:

Onetahua: Farewell Spit, means ‘heaped up sand’.
Te Tau Ihu: The top of the South Island.
Katawiri: Westport.
Pakohe: Argillite, a hard stone that fractures to a sharp edge.
Pounamu: Nephrite jade, also commonly called ‘Greenstone’
Kai moana: Seafood.

Lawful property

Abel Tasman banner

Tasman’s expedition was conducted under comprehensive written instructions, and all decisions were taken with reference to these instructions. Tasman didn’t have sole charge of the expedition; he was the president of the ships’ council, on which he held the casting vote.

Their instructions included details on how to proceed when encountering new land, and the method by which they should lay claim to it.

Isaac Gilseman's drawing of the ships at anchor in Frederick Henricx Bay.

Isaac Gilseman’s drawing of the ships at anchor in Frederick Hendricx Bay.

“All continents and islands, which you shall discover, touch at and set foot on, you will take possession of on behalf of Their High Mightinesses the States General of the United-Provinces, the which in uninhabited regions or in such countries as have no sovereign, may be done by erecting a memorial-stone or by planting our Prince-flag in sign of actual occupation, seeing that such lands justly belong to the discoverer and first occupier; but in populated regions or in such as have undoubted lards, the consent of the people or the king will be required before you can enter into possession of them, the which you should try to obtain by friendly persuasion’ and by presenting them with some small tree planted in a little earth, by erecting some stone structure in conjunction with the people, or by setting up the Prince-flag in commemoration of their voluntary assent or submission; all which occurrences you will carefully note in your Journal, mentioning by name such persons as have been present at them, that such record may in future be of service to our republic.”

The bay that they anchored in is now called “Marion Bay” after the Frenchman, Marion du Fresne, who stayed there in March 1772 whilst on his voyage in search of Great Southern Lands.

On the morning of December 3rd, Tasman and Isaac Gilsemans lead another party into Blackmans Bay. They took the same two boats as the day before, and again were a well-armed party with “a number of musketeers, the oarsmen furnished with pikes and side-arms”.

Their caution was based on the accepted wisdom of the day. Tasman’s instructions included the following;

“In landing with small craft extreme caution will everywhere have to be used, seeing that it is well-known that the southern regions are peopled by fierce savages, for which reason you will always have to be well armed and to use every prudent precaution”

They had returned empty handed. They found that the available water in the bay was all so low lying as to be brackish from the tide. On his return he convened the council, and they determined to execute their duty regarding claiming the land, and then move on.

The honour party comprised Tasman and “Pilot-major Francoys Jacobsz, Skipper Gerrit Jansz, Isack Gilsemans, supercargo on board the Zeehaan, subcargo Abraham Coomans, and our master carpenter Pieter Jacobsz.”

They had met with no indigenous people, so only the last of the recommended options was available to them; planting a flag.

“We carried with us a pole with the Company’s mark carved into it, and a Prince-flag to be set up there, that those who shall come after us may become aware that we have been here”

In the course of the afternoon, the conditions began to worsen, and the cock-boat from the Zeehaen, with Gilsemans and Visscher on board, turned back to the ships. Tasman however, pressed on in order to execute their obligation.

Gilseman's drawing of the ships at anchor in Frederick Henricx Bay besides an actual outline, and Tasman's movements in the bay.

Gilseman’s drawing (rotated to north) of the ships at anchor in Frederick Hendricx Bay besides a modern coastline, and Tasman’s movements in the Bay.

“ When we had come close inshore in a small inlet which bore west-south-west of the ships the surf ran so high that we could not get near the shore without running the risk of having our pinnace dashed to pieces. We then ordered the carpenter aforesaid to swim to the shore alone with the pole and the flag, and kept by the wind with our pinnace; we made him plant the said pole with the flag at top into the earth, about the centre of the bay…

…. Our master carpenter, having in the sight of myself, Abel Jansz Tasman, Skipper Gerrit Jansz, and Subcargo Abraham Coomans, performed the work entrusted to him, we pulled with our pinnace as near the shore as we ventured to do; the carpenter aforesaid thereupon swam back to the pinnace through the surf. “

Tasman’s journal for that day recorded that his duty had been performed.

“…we have been here, and have taken possession of the said land as our lawful property”

Conditions deteriorated further. In the evening they had to lower their yards and put out a second anchor, but by the next morning the storm had abated. The storm must have been severe, as on raising the anchors the next day they found that one had both flukes completely snapped off; they raised only the shaft.

Their efforts to find water had been unsuccessful, and so it was decided they should follow the coast “to pass to north to landward of the northernmost islands and seek a better watering-place”. They sailed along the coast noting “several columns of smoke” as they passed.

They had seen no people, but there was little doubt that they had been seen.

When Visscher had explored around Blackmans Bay he’d reported that “they had heard certain human sounds and also sounds nearly resembling the music of a trump or a small gong not far from them though they had seen no one”. While they were exploring, observers on the ships “saw clouds of dense smoke rising up from the land”

Similarly, when the flag was being planted, Tasman observed;

“… leaving the above-mentioned as a memorial for those who shall come after us, and for the natives of this country, who did not show themselves, though we suspect some of them were at no great distance and closely watching our proceedings.”

Tasman’s journal for that day, 4th December 1642, concluded:

“Here it would be meet to describe the trend of the coast and the islands lying off it but we request to be excused for briefness sake and beg leave to refer to the small chart drawn up of it which we have appended.”

Visscher's map of Tasmania side by side with a modern coastline

Visscher’s map of Tasmania side by side with a modern coastline

Visscher’s chart of Tasmania is quite remarkable. It is drawn with west at the top of the page, (shown rotated here) and compares very favourably with a contemporary map, conmsidering that most of the time they were more than 20 km off the shore, and that they had no means of accurately determining longitude.

The next day, December 5th, they tried to follow the coast again, but found themselves unable to.

On the west side of Tasmania they had been concerned about being driven onto the shore, and now, they couldn’t reach it.

Coastal survey of the land they passed on leaving Frederick Henricx Bay.

Coastal survey of the land they passed on leaving Frederick Henricx Bay.

“at this point the land fell off to the north-west so that we could no longer steer near the coast here, seeing that the wind was almost ahead. We therefore convened the council and the second mates, with whom after due deliberation we resolved, and subsequently called out to the officers of the Zeehaen that, pursuant to the resolution of the 11th ultimo we should direct our course due east,…
… we then shaped our course due east for the purpose of making further discoveries”

Now they turned east, having determined to sail at the latitude 41° for a further 26° of longitude.

Sailing east in search of “further discoveries”, another large land extending from 34°s to 47°s, now lay across their path; New Zealand.

Land of Giants

Abel Tasman banner

24th November.

“… In the afternoon about 4 o’clock we saw land bearing east by north of us at about 10 miles distance from us by estimation; the land we sighted was very high; towards evening we also saw, east-south-east of us, three high mountains, and to the north-east two more mountains, but less high than those to southward; …

… we convened our ship’s council with the second mate’s and represented to them whether it would not be advisable to run farther out to sea; we also asked their advice as to the time when it would be best to do so, upon which it was unanimously resolved to run out to sea at the expiration of three glasses, to keep doing so for the space of ten glasses, and after this to make for the land again.”

It was 48 days since they last saw land, but now that they had found land, they were confronted with danger.

Their ships couldn’t make way into the wind; the best they could achieve was to sail directly across it.

Their recent experience was of strong, and often fierce conditions coming from the West, and this coast was a ‘lee shore’; the land was downwind from them. If the wind turned to a westerly storm here they would be driven onto the shoreline.

Sighting Tasmania

Sighting Tasmania. Mt Heeskirk and Mt Zeehan are named in recognition of this achievement. They are the two mountains to the north-east mentioned in Tasman’s journal.

The prudent action was to turn away from the shore while conditions permitted. However, their instructions were to claim land that they find for the VOC, and for this they had to go ashore and plant a flag.

They were in a dilemma that would be repeated many times on this voyage.

They were required to claim all land that they discovered, but if that land was a lee shore, then it was very unwise to approach it. If the land was in the contrary position, upwind of them, then it was safe to land… but they couldn’t reach it because they couldn’t make way into the wind.

The Council was convened in the evening and it was agreed to run out to sea for a while before turning back to land, thus holding their safe distance from the land overnight. They decided to run out to sea for ‘three glasses’, and then back to land under reduced sail for ‘ten glasses’. Time measurement on board was done using sand glasses, each glass being 30 minutes. So ‘three glasses’ and ‘ten glasses’ are 1 1/2 hours and 5 hours respectively.

In the morning the Council met again, and “with the wind now from the South East” they risked making for the coast again.

25th November.

“… in the evening we got near the coast; three miles off shore we sounded in 60 fathom coral bottom; one mile off the coast we had clean, fine, white sand; we found this coast to bear south by east and north by west… our ship being 42° 30′ South Latitude, and average Longitude 163° 50′. We then put off from shore again. If you should happen to be overtaken by rough weather from the westward you had best heave to and not run on. “

They were very cautious on this coast, and properly so; if the conditions changed they would not be able to escape being wrecked. Not only did the shoreline run north-south with a typically westerly wind, the coast was also dotted with islands. They had no way of coming to a halt, and sailed by day and night, so these islands posed an extreme hazard in the dark.

Drawings by Isaac Gilsemans of the southern coastline of Tasmania

Drawings of the southern coastline of Tasmania by Isaac Gilsemans, from the deck of the Zeehaen.

For the next four days they played ‘cat and mouse’ with the coast. Land would come into sight, they would move toward it, the conditions would be unfavourable, and then they would bear away again. As they followed the coast around to the South, the land slowly turned from a westerly aspect, to southerly, and then easterly, making finding a safe anchorage increasingly likely, but only available to them if the wind let them reach the shore.

On 29th November they saw a favourable looking bay, and set out to seek an anchorage there. However, again, the conditions conspired against them.

Storm Bay

Storm Bay

“..In the evening about 5 o’clock we came before a bay which seemed likely to afford a good anchorage, upon which we resolved with our ship’s council to run into it, as may be seen from today’s resolution; we had nearly got into the bay when there arose so strong a gale that we were obliged to take in sail and to run out to sea again under reduced sail, seeing that it was impossible to come to anchor in such a storm; in the evening we resolved to stand out to sea during the night under reduced sail to avoid being thrown on a lee-shore by the violence of the wind…”

The scene of this event is still known by the name Tasman gave it; Storm Bay.

By daybreak they found they were nearly out of sight of land, but turned to it again. However, having passed the southernmost point of Tasmania, land now lay to their North-West, and when the wind turned to the north, the best they could achieve was to sail west, leaving the land to their North.

Abel Tasman finally secured an anchorage in Tasmania on 1st December, 1642

Abel Tasman finally secured an anchorage in Tasmania on 1st December, 1642

Again, on the next day, their attempts to reach the coast were thwarted by unfavourable conditions, but finally, on December 1st, they met with success.
1st of December.

… in the afternoon we hoisted the white flag upon which our friends of the Zeehaan came on board of us, with whom we resolved that it would be best and most expedient, wind and weather permitting, to touch at the land the sooner the better, both to get better acquainted with its condition and to attempt to procure refreshments for our own behoof…

…about one hour after sunset we dropped anchor in a good harbour, in 22 fathom, white and grey fine sand, a naturally drying bottom; for all which it behoves us to thank God Almighty with grateful hearts.”

At anchor in Frederick Henricx Bay

At anchor in Frederick Henricx Bay

They had finally managed to reach a safe anchorage, at a place they named Frederick Henricx Bay.

It had been 55 days since they last replenished their stocks of water and firewood, and Tasman had a contingent of 110 men to support. Replenishing their stocks of water was a matter of some urgency.

In the morning two boats went ashore to search for provisions… “in order to ascertain what facilities (as regards fresh water, refreshments, timber and the like) may be available there.”

Visscher was in charge of the pinnace from the Heemskerck, and was accompanied by the cock-boat from the Zeehaen. Both boats had musketeers on board, and the rowers were armed with pikes and ‘side arms’.

They were gone the whole day, and in the evening they returned and delivered an account of their exploration to the Council.

At anchor

Position at anchor, and Visschers exploration of Blackmans Bay

They had rowed around the point and about 4 kilometres into what is now called Blackmans Bay, and returned with samples of vegetables which they had seen growing there “in great abundance”. The land was high, level and “covered with vegetation (not cultivated, but growing naturally by the will of God)”. There was good timber there, but the water they found wasn’t deep enough to fill barrels, “because the watercourse was so shallow that the water could be dipped with bowls only”. This was impracticable in view of the amount of water they needed to bring aboard.

The Council was particularly interested in what signs of people had been observed.

Visscher told them he’d seen many fireplaces, and on occasions smoke rising from the bush. They’d heard sounds “nearly resembling the music of a trump or a small gong not far from them” but had not actually seen anyone.

His report concluded that

1881 Engraving of an aborigine climping a tree using rope and hatchet

1881 Engraving of an aborigine climping a tree using rope and hatchet.

“… they had seen two trees about 2 or 2½ fathom in thickness measuring from 60 to 65 feet from the ground to the lowermost branches, which trees bore notches made with flint implements, the bark having been removed for the purpose; these notches, forming a kind of steps to enable persons to get up the trees and rob the birds’ nests in their tops, were fully 5 feet apart so that our men concluded that the natives here must be of very tall stature, or must be in possession of some sort of artifice for getting up the said trees; in one of the trees these notched steps were so fresh and new that they seemed to have been cut less than four days ago….
… So there can be no doubt there must be men here of extraordinary stature”.

And so began the legend, that the ‘Great South Land’ was peopled by giants.

There was actually a simpler explanation, but it was less appealing to the press of the time.

Visscher’s observation of “some sort of artifice for getting up the said trees” was correct, but the press found that the prospect of; monsters, giants and cannibals sold far more copies than did a length of rope and a hatchet… and so the giants myth was perpetuated.

Expeditions to Australia, in search of Giant specimens, continued right up to the nineteenth century.

Tasmania

Abel Tasman banner

The Council had decided that they should turn east, and in doing so they had avoided potential disaster.

29th October.

“At noon we directed our course to eastward with a north-north-westerly wind and a top-gallant gale; our estimated latitude being 45° 47′, and Longitude 89° 44′; course kept south-south-east sailed 17 miles.”

Tasman's eastward progress

Tasman’s eastward progress

Having just avoided the French Southern and Antarctic lands they ran eastwards for three days, before again turning south-east.

The foul weather and intermittent fog persisted, as did sightings of weed on the water, and at the latitude 49°S Tasman recorded that

“our men begin to suffer badly from the severe cold”.

The weather was so bad that it was impossible to convene the Council. However, they passed messages in a small barrel between the ships.

On Nov 7th, Visscher, the Pilot Major delivered some extraordinary news… the Company’s understanding that the Solomon Islands reached as far as 220°E was certainly incorrect, and could not be relied on. On board the Zeehaen, Visscher had a globe of the world, and a map… and disagreed very significantly on the longitude of the Solomon Islands. On close inspection Visscher discovered that they had different origins for longitude.

The VOC used the convention that zero longitude, the meridian, was measured from the Peak of Tenerife. This was the coordinate system in their map, “the large chart of the South Sea”, the map drawn by Gerritsz showing all the known lands in Australia.

However, the globe was an older device, and had a different meridian.

“The terrestrial globe shows us that the easternmost islands of the Salomonis are in the longitude of fully 220°, reckoning said longitude from the meridian of the islands of Corvo and Floris.”

The globe used the Portuguese convention, having its meridian at the Azores, which at the time the convention was adopted, was the westernmost of any known land.

Even after making adjustments for the different meridians, the discrepancy between the chart and the globe was enormous. Depending on the features compared, the globe and chart differed by between 11° and 19° of longitude.

Their instructions were to sail east, as far as the eastern extremity of the Solomon Islands… but now there was significant confusion about just where that was.

Following a complex series of calculations he decided they should rely on their newer Gerritsz map, rather than the Portuguese globe, and made a written recommendation.

Hence our advice is that we should stick to the 44th degree South Latitude until we shall have passed the 150th degree of Longitude, and then run north as far as the 40th degree South Latitude, remaining there with an easterly course until we shall have reached the 220th degree of Longitude, after which we should take a northerly course so as to avail ourselves of the trade-wind to reach the Salomonis islands and New Guinea…
…Signed, Francoys Jacobsz.

Bad weather continued to make it impossible to convene the Council, and it was not until two days later that Tasman replied to the Pilot’s message.

“Towards evening we dispatched to the officers of the Zeehaan the letter following, together with the Annotations of Pilot-major Francoys Jacobsz, the said papers being enclosed in a wooden canister-shot-case, duly waxed and closely wrapped up in tarred canvas, which case we sent adrift from the stern part of the poop; the letter duly reached its destination and ran as follows:

To the officers of the Zeehaan.

We should have greatly liked to have had your advice on the 7th instant but, time and opportunity being unpropitious, we resolved with the members of our council and our second mates to shape our course north-east as far as 44° South Latitude, and then keep a due east course as far as 150° Longitude; should you agree to this resolution then be pleased to hoist a flag at your stern as a sign of approval that we may duly ratify the resolution. We also request you to do your best to sail in during the night until further orders and, if you should think it possible to come alongside of us in the boat, be pleased to float a flag from the foretop by way of signal, in which case we shall stay for you, seeing that we are very desirous of communicating with you by word of mouth. Farewell. Actum Heemskerk sailing in about 44° South Latitude, this day November 9, 1642.

Signed, ABEL JANSZ TASMAN.

After reading the above, those of the Zeehaen hoisted the Prince-flag in sign of approbation of our resolution.”

Over the preceding days they had been pushed progressively north, and were now already at 44°S. They accordingly now set their course east.

In the preceding two weeks two decisions had been made that had completely changed the outcome of the expedition.

On the 29th Oct, in heavy fog, they had turned east. Had they continued south they would have met, most likely tragically, with the French Antarctic Lands, which would remain undiscovered until 1772.

From Mauritius, they had sailed 7,000km without sighting land. On 9th November they determined, contrary to their instructions, to run East at the Latitude of 44°S.

That decision placed them in the same latitude as the land that would subsequently bear their commanders name… Tasmania.

On Nov 11th the weather eased and they were finally able to convene the Council.

“We ran up the white flag, upon which the officers of the Zeehaen came on board of us, when we resolved in the plenary Council to run on in the parallel of about 44° South Latitude from our present longitude (averaging 123° 29′) as far as 195° Longitude, being the meridian of the east side of New Guinea as delineated in the chart.”

The Council confirmed that they should sail on in the latitude 44°S.

South Land and progress

The Gerritsz map of the South Seas, overlaid on an image of Australia and Tasman’s progress to 24th Nov.

By 17th November they had reached the eastern extremity of their chart, and passed again into the unknown. Now they were not only further South in this ocean than any Dutchman had ever been, they were also further to the East.

“we estimated that we had already passed the South land known up to the present, or so far as Pieter Nuyts had run to eastward.”

Tasman continued to the East in mixed weather, and the journey was otherwise uneventful except for this unusual event on 22nd November.

lodestone

Click the image for more about Lodestone

“we found that our compasses were not so steady as they should be, and supposed that possibly there might be mines of loadstone about here, our compasses sometimes varying 8 points from one moment to another, so that there would always seem to be some cause that kept the needle in motion”.

He had sailed over a magnetic anomaly that caused his comapass to vary through a 90° arc. ‘loadstone’ (sic) is a magnetic rock, and in Tasman’s time was used to magnetize to their compass needles.

The following day he compared his position to a location we can verify.

“At noon Latitude observed 42° 50′, Longitude 162° 51′; course kept east, sailed 25 miles; we found the variation to the compass to be 1 degree North-West, so that the decrease is a very abrupt one here; by estimation the west side of New Guinea must be north of us.”

It was 47 days since he left his last known position, Mauritius, and at this point in his journal we can test his ‘dead reckoning’ estimate of Longitude.

On 22nd November he wrote that he believed the western extremity of New Guinea was now due north of his position. The western point of New Guinea lies in 130° 57′, due east of Greenwich. He estimated his longitude that day as 162° 51′, measured East from the Peak of Tenerife. This is 134° 2′ E using our contemporary convention of the Greenwich Meridian.

His longitude estimate error is 3° 5′. In terms of change in longitude from his reference point, Mauritius, this is a 4% error; or expressed the other way, Tasman’s ‘dead reckoning’ of longitude was 96% reliable.

Tasman’s journal for the next day, began innocuously…

“Good weather and a clear sky. At noon Latitude observed 42° 25′, Longitude 163° 31′; course kept east by north, sailed 30 miles; the wind south-westerly and afterwards from the south with a light top-gallant breeze.”

However, that day one of his sailors earned a bonus;

“three pieces-of-eight and a can of arrack to whoever shall first see and observe land”.

On November 24th, 1642 Tasman recorded in his journal. “In the afternoon about 4 o’clock we saw land bearing east by north of us at about 10 miles distance from us”.

coastal survey of Tasmania

The first depiction of Tasmania. Drawn by Isaac Gilsemans from the deck of the Zeehaen. Click to open the source document

The captions on this drawing read:

A view of the coast when you are six miles from it.
A view of Anthonij van Diemens Landt, when you come from the west, and are in 42½° S. Latitude.

Naming detail

An extract from Tasman’s journal where the name Van Diemen’s Landt is conferred. Click to open the source document

“This land being the first land we have met with in the South Sea and not known to any European nation we have conferred on it the name of Anthoony Van Diemens landt in honour of the Honourable Governor-General, our illustrious master, who sent us to make this discovery;”

The land he named in honour of his employer, now bears his own name… Tasmania.

Under Instructions

Abel Tasman banner

Model of the Heemskerck at the Auckland Maritime museum

Model of the Heemskerck at the Auckland Maritime museum

Model of the Zeehaen at the Auckland Maritime Museum

Model of the Zeehaen at the Auckland Maritime Museum

In order to appreciate the progress of Tasman’s 14642 voyage it is necessary to understand the circumstances under which he was operating.

The VOC company wanted to find the Great South Land, to see if they was anything there that they could exploit commercially. They also wanted to know if there was a passage between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean through which they could gain access to the gold bearing coast of South America.

These were the two goals of the expedition.

Tasman was provided with two ships for the expedition, the Heemskerck, and the Zeehaen. Both ships carried cannons. He had 110 men in total, 19 of them soldiers, full rations for a year, and rice sufficient for 18 months.

The cost of the expedition was enormous. Not only did the VOC provide the vessels, crew, provisions, and goods for barter, they also diverted these vessels from profit making activity.

They did not take on this expense casually.

Tasman was given comprehensive written instruction on where he should go, and what he should do on discovering land. The VOC also put in place a management structure to ensure that their instructions were followed.

In the course of their business, the vessels of the VOC carried cargoes of incredible value… and this was the caused of significant temptation among skippers and crews; the risk of having a whole cargo stolen was high. For this reason, the ships’ skippers did not have sole charge of their vessels, rather, each ship’s operation was governed by a ‘Ship’s Council’.

All VOC vessels sailed with ‘Supercargo’ , a Company man, in charge of all trading activity. The Supercargo was always a council member.

It was the duty of the Ship’s Council to ensure that the instructions of the company were carried out.

On Tasmans expedition, the Council comprised:
From the Heemskerck: The Commander, Abel Jansz Tasman, The Skipper Yde T’jercxsz, The Pilot-Major Francois Jacobsz (a.k.a. Visscher) and Subcargo Abraham Coomans, who also acted as Secretary.
From the Zeehaen:The Skipper Gerrit Jansz, The Supercargo Isaack Gilsemans, and the first steersman Henrick.

The Commander, Abel Tasman, was an equal Council member except that in the case of a tied resolution, he had a casting vote.

“In this Council all matters relating to the progress of this voyage and the execution of our instructions will have to be discussed and determined, the Commander to have a double vote in case of equality of votes; “

Tasman was the president of a management committee, whose duty it was to execute the written instructions of the company, and Abel Tasman could not vary from those instructions without the approval of the Council.

In this respect, the voyage of Abel Tasman was completely unlike all the other famous expeditions. Tasman was not able to make decisions quickly, nor could he win through with an extreme proposal; exploration by committee was a cautious, even timid, process.

He had an additional difficulty in that his Council was distributed across the two vessels. In order to make a decision that was at variance with their instructions, Tasman had to convene the Council. This was done by flying a large white flag, upon which the Council members on the Zeehaen would come across. But to do this required that the vessels drop their sails, and lay to, and could only happen when the conditions permitted passage between the vessels.

The Gerritsz map of Australia carried by Abel Tasman

The Gerritsz map of Australia carried by Abel Tasman

A depiction of their arrival in Tonga, drawn by Isaac Gilsemans

A depiction of their arrival in Tonga, drawn by Isaac Gilsemans

Two of the Council members warrant particular mention.

‘Francois Jacobsz’ also known as ‘Visscher’ was the Chief Pilot and navigator. He was the chart-maker, and it was his calculations that were used to calculate their current position.

‘Isaack Gilsemans’ had a dual capacity. He was the company’s trader, but he was also the draughtsman, responsible for drawing the coastal surveys and other illustrations in the Commanders journal.

Gilsemans had a bewildering array of goods on board to barter with. Among them were; Tin, Pewter, Lead and Steel, with a small quantity of gold and pearls. Iron goods included, pots and pans, and knives and hatchets. His hoard also included some curiosities; hundreds of mirrors and combs and intriguingly… elephants teeth, and a brass bath.

The Ship’s Council was guided by comprehensive written instructions. In addition to the course they should sail they were given instruction on the men’s weekly rations, aimed at conserving their provisions. They were explicitly warned to take care of their stocks of water and firewood.

They were instructed to keep a lookout when approaching land, and advance a reward to the man first sighting it. They were also given clear instruction on how they should lay claim to any land found, and to inquire (without showing too much interest) about whether or not there was gold thereabouts.

On finding land they should follow its coast to see where it lead, taking care to note all; “islands, points, turnings, inlets, bays, rivers, shoals, banks, sands, reefs, cliff; rocks, etc”. Each of these they must “carefully map out and describe, and also have proper drawings made of their appearance and shape”.

In addition to the written instructions, Tasman was provided with, among other items; the Gerritsz map of Australia, notes from the skipper of the Gulden Zepppart, a Spanish description of the Solomon Islands, and a lexicon of words of the Solomon Islanders.

In his quest for the South Land, the route that Tasman should navigate was this:

The course instructions given to Abel Tasman

The course instructions given to Abel Tasman

From Mauritius they should sail south to the latitude of 52°S or 54°S. Then they should turn east, until reaching the longitude of the eastern extremity of the Solomon Islands (incorrectly thought to be 220° East of the Peak of Tenerife) before turning north. Then they should proceed at fist northwards, and then North-west to New Guinea, and the Philippine’s, before finding their way back to Batavia.

If Abel Tasman had followed the directions he was given, then he would have discovered nothing at all.