As Tasman and his ships crossed the sea now named after him, he saw a large high land, and turned to it straight away. He fired a cannon to alert the Zeehaen to his change in course.
It was a momentous occasion.
The land they had already discovered, “Anthony van Diemens Landt”, wasn’t unexpected; the Dutch already knew about Australia. The VOC already knew of over half of its coastline; to the North, West and South, only the eastern limits were unknown.
From Van Diemens Landt they sailed directly East, now in completely unknown waters; they were beyond all the extremities marked on their charts.
This English map from 1628 shows “The Southern Unknown Land” as a vague line bearing the inscription “This South part of the World (contayning almost the third part of the Globe) is yet unknowne certayne sea coasts excepted: which rather shew there is a land then discry eyther land, people, or Comodities.”
They were sailing in a huge area that was a blank on the maps. At this latitude, the whole ocean between South America, and Australia was a void, filled only by the imaginings of the cartographers.
There, in that void, Tasman had found land.
In the afternoon Tasman convened the Ships Council, and they had decided to make for the land “as quickly as at all possible”.
Whilst there would have been excitement about this new discovery, it would have been tempered with apprehension. The rumours about the Great South Land spoke of Gold and Silver, but Tasman’s written instructions also noted that “it is well-known that the southern regions are peopled by fierce savages”.
There were also practical matters to consider. The last time they had taken water and firewood on board was in Mauritius. That was 67 days ago, and they had a contingent of 110 to be kept fed and watered; re-supply was important. The other concern was that this was a lee shore.
Their expectation and experience was that south-westerly winds dominated in this latitude, and they were sailing in “huge hollow waves and heavy swells” coming from the South-West.
As they continued south-east and closed on the shore, it became apparent that this was indeed a large land. They were approaching a coast that ran from South-west to North-east. It was not a group of islands with passages between and offering the chance of shelter behind, but a continuous lee shore… and they were approaching it in darkness.
Turning east would slow their progress towards land, but importantly it would also give them an easy tack to run parallel to the coast should a strong south-westerly blew up. They instructed their steersmen to continue on their South-east course unless the wind strengthened.
At 10:00 pm they turned East, and held that course until daylight.
With the dawn they found themselves close to the shore.
Tasman’s expedition first met the coast of New Zealand between Greymouth and Hokitika, near Kumara Junction, on the morning of December 14th, 1642.
“We were about 2 myles off the coast, which showed as a very high double land, but we could not see the summits of the mountains owing to thick clouds. We shaped our course to northward along the coast, so near to it that we could constantly see the surf break on the shore.”
They turned to follow the coast north, and began the first documented exploration of New Zealand.
At midday Tasman recorded an ‘observed’ latitude of 42° 10′, placing him between Barrytown, and Punakaiki. Towards evening “we saw a low-lying point north-east by north of us, at about 3 miles distance;”.
He named it Clyppige Hoek, Rocky Point. Later, James Cook called it Cape Foulwind; (he wasn’t having a good time when he sailed past there). The Maori that lived in the area already had a name for it; Omau. It was a favoured place for seals and shellfish.
They sailed towards the Cape until the wind dropped away completely, and then found themselves drifting in a current that carried them closer and closer to the shore.
As they drifted, the water was becoming shallower, until they found themselves in 28 fathoms, “where, on account of the calm, and for fear of drifting nearer to the shore, we ran out our kedge-anchor during the day-watch”
Conditions must have been very calm indeed as their “kedge-anchor” was not one of their main anchors, but a small one. It was the light anchor that they used for ‘warping’; pulling themselves into the wind, and out of awkward harbours… like Mauritius.
In the morning he reported “we then had the northernmost low-lying point of the day before, north-north-east and north-east by north of us”. This shows that the direction of their drift had been constant, and towards the Cape, and from this we can calculate his position at anchor.
Tasman’s first anchorage in New Zealand was 5 km off Nine Mile Beach, immediately to the South of Cape Foulwind.
This is the complete journal entry for December 14th, 1642.
“At noon Latitude observed 42° 10′, Longitude 189° 3′; course kept east, sailed 12 miles. We were about 2 miles off the coast, which showed as a very high double land, but we could not see the summits of the mountains owing to thick clouds. We shaped our course to northward along the coast, so near to it that we could constantly see the surf break on the shore. In the afternoon we took soundings at about 2 miles distance from the coast in 55 fathom, a sticky sandy soil, after which it fell a calm. Towards evening we saw a low-lying point north-east by north of us, at about 3 miles distance; the greater part of the time we were drifting in a calm towards the said point; in the middle of the afternoon we took soundings in 45 fathom, a sticky sandy bottom. The whole night we drifted in a calm, the sea running from the west-north-west, so that we got near the land in 28 fathom, good anchoring-ground, where, on account of the calm, and for fear of drifting nearer to the shore, we ran out our kedge-anchor during the day-watch, and we are now waiting for the land-wind.”